32 terms

Cells & Cell Processes

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Cell
The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
Adhesion
Attraction between molecules that are different
Cohesion
Attraction between molecules that are the same
Specific Heat
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change it's temperature by 1 degree C
Polarity
A molecule with a positively charged portion and a negatively charged portion
Surface Tension
Property of the surface of a liquid that allows to resist an external force
Protein
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Carbohydrate
Building block molecules are called monosaccharides; the atoms CHO (1,2,1) are present
Lipid
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Nucleic Acids
Composed of a nitrogen base, five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. DNA and RNA
Monosaccharide
A simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate. Glucose and Fructose
Disaccharide
A molecule composed of two monosaccharides. Common disaccharides include maltose, sucrose, and lactose.
Polysaccharide
A molecule formed by joining many monosaccharides together. Polysaccharides are typically energy-storage molecules (glycogen in animals, starch in plants) or structural molecules (cellulose in plants, chitin in exoskeletons).
Amino Acids
Make up a protein; composed of a Carbon atoms, Carboxyl Group, Amine Group, Hydrogen, and an R Group
Fatty Acid
Building block of lipids. Can be saturated or unsaturated.
Glycerol
A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.
Phospholipid
A molecule that makes up the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail
Nucleotides
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
Passive Transport
Movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy from the cell
Active Transport
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Autotrophic
An organism that makes its own food.
Heterotrophic
An organism that cannot make its own food
Photosynthesis
A process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light and energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches.
Cellular Respiration
Chemical process where mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP, the three stages are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
Light-Dependent Reaction
Reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH.
Calvin Cycle
A series of reactions that use carbon dioxide to form sugars. Also known as the Dark Reaction
Glycolysis
First step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Kreb's Cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that complete the breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide. Second stage in cellular respiration.
Fermentation
An energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen.