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149 terms

Seely's Anatomy Chapter 7

simple anatomical names for various features of bones is in a separate set (table 7;1)
STUDY
PLAY
appendages, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
appendicular skeleton consists of which regions/bones?
skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic
axial skeleton consists of what part of the body? it includes the _____, the _____ ossicles, the _____ bone, the _____ column and the ____ cage
muscle
bone ridges are usually attachment sites for _____
groove/sulcus, pituitary
the sella turcica on the sphenoid bone is a ______ (bone feature term) and the ______ gland is located here
temporal
the auditory ossicles that function in hearing are located inside the ______ bone
auditory ossicles, temporal
the three smallest bones of the body are the ______ _____, that sit inside the ______ bones
coronal, squamous, lambdoid, saggital
the parietal bones are connected to other bones in the skull by all four sutures: the _____ suture attaches to the fronal bone, the _______ suture attaches attaches to the temporal and sphenoid bones, the _____ suture attaches to the occipital bone, and the ______ suture connects the two temporal bones
external occipital, elastic
the ______ _____ protuberance is at the back of the head and is an attachment for an _____ ligament
nuchal
____ lines are points of attachment for neck muscles to the occipital bone
external accoustic meatus
the ear canal is called the ____ ____ _____. it transmits sound waves toward the eardrum.
mastoid, temporal
neck muscles attach to the _______ process, which is on the ______ bone and contain ______ air cells
mandibular condyle
the _____ ______ is the process of the mandible that articuates with the temporal bone
styloid process
the ____ ____ on each temporal bone provides attachment points for three muscles involved in movement of the tonge, hyoid bone, and pharynx
alveolar processes
the ____ processes are bony ridges on the maxillae and mandible that contain the tooth sockets or bones
orbits
the structures that contain the bones around the eyes are called the ______
ethnoid, vomer
the nasal septum is formed by the perpendicular plate of the _____ bone, and the _____
frontal, sphenoidal, maxillary, ethmoidal
the paranasal sinuses, which connect to the nasal cavity, are the _____ sinus, the _______ sinus, the _______ sinuses and the _______ labyrinth
orbital fissures
the superior and inferior ____ ____ are the long (shape-wise) holes/foramen in the orbits
sphenoid, palatine, zygomatic, frontal, lacrimal, ethmoid, maxilla
the seven bones surrounding the orbit are what? SPaZ FLEM
ligaments, tendons
turbercles are ______ that are usually attachment points for _____ or _____
frontal
the ____ sinus sits between the superior orbital ridges
ethmoidal labyrinth
the ____ _____ is a sinus in a bone of the same name located directly posterior to the bridge of the nose
sphenoidal
the _______ sinuses are roughly supperior to the xygomatic ridge in the bone of the same name
maxillary
the _____ sinuses are on either side of the lower nose, kind of on top of the teeth
foramen magnum
the ____ ______ is the larges hole in the skull and is where the spinal column connects to the brain
carotid canals, foramen magnum
blood reaches the brain through the internal carotid arteries, which pass through the ____ ____ that pass through the ____ bone, and vertebral arteries, which pass through the ___ ____.
jugular foramina
most blood leaves the brain through the internal jugular veins, which exit through the _____ _____
hard palate
the ____ ____ separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity
occipital condyles
_____ ____ are points of articulation between the skull and vertebral column
crista galli
the ___- ____ in the ethmoid bone is a point of atttachment for one of the meninges
olfactory foramina, cribriform plate
the olfactory nerves extend into the roof of the nasal cavity through the _______ foramina of the ________ plate
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral/coccygeal
the four regions of the spine are ______ (1st 7 bones), ______(~ 15 bones), ______ (smaller), and the fused sets of the _____/______ regions
vertebral foramen
the main hole in the middle of the spinal cord is called the ______ _____
invertebral foramina
the spinal nerves exit through the _____ ______, which is only formed when two vertebrae come together
invertebral disks
structures that separate the adjacent bodies of the spinal cord, made of fibrocartillage tissue
intervertebral notches
_______ notches form intervertebral foramina between two adjacent vertebrae through which nerves exit the spinal canal
transverse
the _____ foramen is a structure special to the c1-c7 vertebrae where the vertebral arteries go through
atlas
c1 vertebra is also called the ______
axis
c2 vertebra is also called the _____
dens
the ____ is only found on the axis. it is a process (?) that articulates with a facet of the atlas
vertebral foramen
part of the body and the vertebral arch form the ______ ______, which contains and protects the spinal cord
canal
the hole in the sacrum where the spinal cord goes is called the sacral _____
scapulae, clavicles
the pectoral girdles consist of the _____ and _____ bones.
clavicle
the ____ holds the shoulder away from the body and allows movement of the scapula, resulting in free movement of the arm
clavicle
the acromion of the scapula attaches to what bone?
glenoid
the ____ cavity is the socket in the scapula which articulates with the humerus
scapula, radius, ulna
the humerus articulates with what three bones?
each other, humerus, carpals
the ulna and radius articulate with what?
capitulum, trochlea
the radius articulates to the _____ of the humerus, while the ulna articulates to the ______ of the humerus
22, 8, 14
skull is composed of how many bones total? how many in the braincase/cranial cavity? How many facial bones?
temporalis
the temporal lines are attachments for the ______ muscles
temporal
the mandible articulates with the _______ bone
hyoid
they _____ bone is the attachment sight for throat and tongue muscles
vertebral column
the _____ ____ provides flexible support and protects the spinal cord
body, arch
part of the vertebral _____ and the vertebral ____ (pedicel and lamina) form the vertebral foramen
transverse, spinous
in the vertebrae, the ______ and ______ processes are points of muscle and ligament attachment
articular processes
vertebrae articulate with one another through the superior and inferior _______ ________
intervertebral foramina
spinal nerves exit through the ______ ______
transverse
all seven cervical vertebrae have ____ foramina, and most have ______ spinous processes
ribs, downward-pointing
the 12 thoracic vertebrae all have attachment points for _____, and are characterized by long, _____ _______ spinous processes
medially, laterally
the five lumbar vertebrae's superior articular facets face ______, and their inferior facets face _______
coxal
the pelvis is composed of the ______ bones
thoracic cage
the ____- _____ consists of ribs, their associated costal cartilages, and the sternum
manubrium
the top of the sternum is called the _______
scapula, radius, ulna
the humerus articulates with the head of the ______, the capitulum of the _______ and the trochlea of the _____
styloid processes
the wrist ligaments attach to the _______ ______ of the radius and ulna
eight, five, three, two
there are ____ carpal bones, ____ metacarpal bones, _____ bones in each phalanx and ____ phalanges in the thumb
petrous
the _____ portion of the temporal bone contains the auditory ossicles, and connects the middle and inner ear
intervertebral foramina
the ____ ____ only exist when two vertebrae articulate
transverse
_______ foramen are only found in the cervical vertebrae
cervical
bifid spinous processes would only be found in which type of vertebra?
auricular
the _____ surface of the sacrum allows bones to attach to the pelvis
hiatus
a sacral ________ is an alcove, or groove, in the sacral crest.
acromion
the _____ is the most lateral process of the scapular spine
nailhead
the radius has a proximal ("top") end shaped like what?
sternal, acromial
the medial end of the scapula is called the ______ end, and the end that attaches to the scapula is called the ______ end
styloid processes
the wrist ligaments attach to the ____ ____ of the radius and ulna
intertubercular, bicipital
The ______, aka ______ groove, is between the greater and lesser tubercles on the proximal end of the humerus?
medical epicondyle
the bony protrusion that can be felt on the side of your elbow is called what?
olecranon
the _____ fossa is between the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus on the posterior side
trochlea
the _____ is a grooved articular surface on the distal end of the humerus and articulates with the ulna
radial, coronoid
the _____ and _____ fossae are on the distal end of the humerus on the anterior side
capitulum, radius
the ______ is the condyle on the lateral, distal end of the humerus and articulates with what bone(s)?
lesser, anterior proximal end
the deltoid tuberosity is basically an extension of what tubercle on what part of the humerus?
radial groove
the ________ groove is on the posterior side of the humerus
ligaments
the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus are attachment points for what?
proximal, distal
the head of the radius is on the proximal/distal end of the radius, and the head of the ulna is on the proximal/distal end of the ulna?
anterior
the interosseous ridges are on the anterior/posterior surfaces of the radius and ulna?
olecranon, ulna
the ______ is the pointy part of the elbow. it is the proximal end of which bone?
coronoid processq
the _____ ______ is the projection of the distal end of the trochlear notch of the ulna
ulnar tuberosity
the ____ _____ is a ridge-like extension of the coronoid process of the ulna
radial tuberosity, ulnar notch
what two parts, other than the head, of the radius articulate with the ulna?
five
how many metacarpal bones are in the hand?
radius, ulna
the carpals articulate with the metacarpals, the_____ and the _______
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
"So long top part" stands for which carpal bones?
hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium
"Here comes the thumb" stands for which carpal bones?
symphysis pubis, sacroiliac, acetabulum
the coxal bones articulate with each other at the _____ ______, with the sacrum at the ______ joint, and with the femur at the _________
anterior iliac, ischial
muscles attach to the coxal bones at the _____ _____ spines and at the ______ tuberosities
acetabulum, patella, tibia
the femur articulates with the _____ on the coxal bones, and the _____ and ______ on the distal end.
tibia, talus
the fibula articulates with the _____ and the ______
iliac crest
the top, rounded edge of the coxal bone is cslled the ___ _____
two
how many bones in the hip?
ischium, obturator foramen
the _____ is the bone just below the acetabulum/ischium in the coxal bone. the hole formed by this bone and the pubis is called the ______ foramen
ischial tuberosity
the bony protrusions we sit on, on either sides of the butt, is called the _______ _______
greater sciatic notch
the big u-shaped indention on the margin between the ischial spine and the posterior inferior iliac spine is called the _____ _____ ______
coxal, tibia, patella, fibula
the femur articulates with the ________ bone, the _____ and the _______, but NOT the ______
greater and lesser trochanters, adductor
sites of muscle attachment on the femur are the _____ ... and the _____ tubercle
lateral and medial epicondyles
ligaments attach to the femur where?
femur, fibula, talus
the tibia articulates with the ____, the ____ and the ______
tibia, talus
the fibula articulates with the _____ and the ______
thigh
tendons from the ______ muscles attach to the tibial tuberosity
gluteal tuberosity
the gluteus maximus attaches to the ______ ______ of the femur
tibia
the tibia/fibula is always on the medial portion of the leg
linea aspera
the rough ridge on the back of the femur that is basically a continuation of the gluteal tuberosity is the _____ ______
patellar
the _____ groove is between the medial and lateral epicondyles on the anterior side of the femur
lateral malleolus, medial malleolus
the ankle bones are the _____ ______ of the fibula, and the ____- _______ of the tibia
intercondylar eminence
the "bump" between the articular facets of the proximal tibia is called the ______ ______
anterior crest
the ____ ____ of the tibia is the "shinbone"
tibia, fibula
the talus of the ankle articulates with what two bones?
calcaneus
the heel bone is known as the _______
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
three major type of joints
dense regular connective
fibrous joints are made of what kind of tissue?
cavity, movement
fibrous joints have no joint _____ and are capable of little or no _____
syndesmoses
_______ are fibrous joints with fibrous ligaments that have some movement
gomphoses
_______ are fibrous joints in which pegs fit into sockets and are only found in teeth
sutures, skull
and example of a fibrous joint would be the _______ that hold together the bones of the ______
radius, ulna
an example of a fibrous, syndesmotic joint would be the one between the ____ and ______
interosseous membrane
the radioulnar syndesmosis is joined by the ______ ______ connected to ridges of the same name on each bone
synchondroses, symphases
types of cartilagenous joints are _______, in which the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage, and ______, in which the bones are joined by fibrocartillage
synchondrosis
epiphesial plates would be an example of what type of cartilaginous joint?
hyaline, fibro-
synchondroses joints are joined with ____- cartilage, while symphyses joints are joined with ____ cartilage
synovial, appendicular
______ joints are capable of consideral movement, and are mostly found in the _______ skeleton
bursae
______ are extensions of synovial joints that protect (mostly) skin, tendons or bone from structures that could rub against them
between vertebrae
a plane joint is between two flat surfaces. give an example of a plane joint
radius/ulna
a pivot joint is composed of a cylindrical projection inside a ring. give an example of a pivot joint
elbow
a hinge joint has concave and convex surfaces. give an example of a hinge joint
femur/acetabulum
give an example of a ball and socket joint
ellipsoid
the joint between the atlas and the occipital condyles is an example of what type of joint?
carpals or metacarpals
a saddle joint is generally between bones in what joints?
gliding
_____ movements occur when two flat surfaces move across each other
angular
_____ movement occurs with flexion and extension or abduction and adduction
circular
_____ movements are rotation, pronation and supination, and circumduction
special
elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, excursion, opposition, reposition, inversion and eversion are all examples of what type of movement?
glenoid cavity, humerus
and example of a joint that allows circumduction would be between what two bony structures?
protraction, retraction
______ is the movement that "pulls out", and ______ is the movement that "Pulls in"
flexion, extension
movement at a hinge joint is limited to what two types?
ellipsoid, flexion, extension, rotation
the knee joint is a complex _______ joint that allows _____, ______ and slight _____ movements
dorsiflextion, plantar flexion
______ of the foot brings the toes closer to the shin, where _____ would "point" the toes
inversion, eversion
______ would turn the sole of the foot medially, while ____ would turn the sole of the foot laterally