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simple anatomical names for various features of bones is in a separate set (table 7;1)

appendages, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle

appendicular skeleton consists of which regions/bones?

skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic

axial skeleton consists of what part of the body? it includes the _____, the _____ ossicles, the _____ bone, the _____ column and the ____ cage


bone ridges are usually attachment sites for _____

groove/sulcus, pituitary

the sella turcica on the sphenoid bone is a ______ (bone feature term) and the ______ gland is located here


the auditory ossicles that function in hearing are located inside the ______ bone

auditory ossicles, temporal

the three smallest bones of the body are the ______ _____, that sit inside the ______ bones

coronal, squamous, lambdoid, saggital

the parietal bones are connected to other bones in the skull by all four sutures: the _____ suture attaches to the fronal bone, the _______ suture attaches attaches to the temporal and sphenoid bones, the _____ suture attaches to the occipital bone, and the ______ suture connects the two temporal bones

external occipital, elastic

the ______ _____ protuberance is at the back of the head and is an attachment for an _____ ligament


____ lines are points of attachment for neck muscles to the occipital bone

external accoustic meatus

the ear canal is called the ____ ____ _____. it transmits sound waves toward the eardrum.

mastoid, temporal

neck muscles attach to the _______ process, which is on the ______ bone and contain ______ air cells

mandibular condyle

the _____ ______ is the process of the mandible that articuates with the temporal bone

styloid process

the ____ ____ on each temporal bone provides attachment points for three muscles involved in movement of the tonge, hyoid bone, and pharynx

alveolar processes

the ____ processes are bony ridges on the maxillae and mandible that contain the tooth sockets or bones


the structures that contain the bones around the eyes are called the ______

ethnoid, vomer

the nasal septum is formed by the perpendicular plate of the _____ bone, and the _____

frontal, sphenoidal, maxillary, ethmoidal

the paranasal sinuses, which connect to the nasal cavity, are the _____ sinus, the _______ sinus, the _______ sinuses and the _______ labyrinth

orbital fissures

the superior and inferior ____ ____ are the long (shape-wise) holes/foramen in the orbits

sphenoid, palatine, zygomatic, frontal, lacrimal, ethmoid, maxilla

the seven bones surrounding the orbit are what? SPaZ FLEM

ligaments, tendons

turbercles are ______ that are usually attachment points for _____ or _____


the ____ sinus sits between the superior orbital ridges

ethmoidal labyrinth

the ____ _____ is a sinus in a bone of the same name located directly posterior to the bridge of the nose


the _______ sinuses are roughly supperior to the xygomatic ridge in the bone of the same name


the _____ sinuses are on either side of the lower nose, kind of on top of the teeth

foramen magnum

the ____ ______ is the larges hole in the skull and is where the spinal column connects to the brain

carotid canals, foramen magnum

blood reaches the brain through the internal carotid arteries, which pass through the ____ ____ that pass through the ____ bone, and vertebral arteries, which pass through the ___ ____.

jugular foramina

most blood leaves the brain through the internal jugular veins, which exit through the _____ _____

hard palate

the ____ ____ separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity

occipital condyles

_____ ____ are points of articulation between the skull and vertebral column

crista galli

the ___- ____ in the ethmoid bone is a point of atttachment for one of the meninges

olfactory foramina, cribriform plate

the olfactory nerves extend into the roof of the nasal cavity through the _______ foramina of the ________ plate

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral/coccygeal

the four regions of the spine are ______ (1st 7 bones), ______(~ 15 bones), ______ (smaller), and the fused sets of the _____/______ regions

vertebral foramen

the main hole in the middle of the spinal cord is called the ______ _____

invertebral foramina

the spinal nerves exit through the _____ ______, which is only formed when two vertebrae come together

invertebral disks

structures that separate the adjacent bodies of the spinal cord, made of fibrocartillage tissue

intervertebral notches

_______ notches form intervertebral foramina between two adjacent vertebrae through which nerves exit the spinal canal


the _____ foramen is a structure special to the c1-c7 vertebrae where the vertebral arteries go through


c1 vertebra is also called the ______


c2 vertebra is also called the _____


the ____ is only found on the axis. it is a process (?) that articulates with a facet of the atlas

vertebral foramen

part of the body and the vertebral arch form the ______ ______, which contains and protects the spinal cord


the hole in the sacrum where the spinal cord goes is called the sacral _____

scapulae, clavicles

the pectoral girdles consist of the _____ and _____ bones.


the ____ holds the shoulder away from the body and allows movement of the scapula, resulting in free movement of the arm


the acromion of the scapula attaches to what bone?


the ____ cavity is the socket in the scapula which articulates with the humerus

scapula, radius, ulna

the humerus articulates with what three bones?

each other, humerus, carpals

the ulna and radius articulate with what?

capitulum, trochlea

the radius articulates to the _____ of the humerus, while the ulna articulates to the ______ of the humerus

22, 8, 14

skull is composed of how many bones total? how many in the braincase/cranial cavity? How many facial bones?


the temporal lines are attachments for the ______ muscles


the mandible articulates with the _______ bone


they _____ bone is the attachment sight for throat and tongue muscles

vertebral column

the _____ ____ provides flexible support and protects the spinal cord

body, arch

part of the vertebral _____ and the vertebral ____ (pedicel and lamina) form the vertebral foramen

transverse, spinous

in the vertebrae, the ______ and ______ processes are points of muscle and ligament attachment

articular processes

vertebrae articulate with one another through the superior and inferior _______ ________

intervertebral foramina

spinal nerves exit through the ______ ______


all seven cervical vertebrae have ____ foramina, and most have ______ spinous processes

ribs, downward-pointing

the 12 thoracic vertebrae all have attachment points for _____, and are characterized by long, _____ _______ spinous processes

medially, laterally

the five lumbar vertebrae's superior articular facets face ______, and their inferior facets face _______


the pelvis is composed of the ______ bones

thoracic cage

the ____- _____ consists of ribs, their associated costal cartilages, and the sternum


the top of the sternum is called the _______

scapula, radius, ulna

the humerus articulates with the head of the ______, the capitulum of the _______ and the trochlea of the _____

styloid processes

the wrist ligaments attach to the _______ ______ of the radius and ulna

eight, five, three, two

there are ____ carpal bones, ____ metacarpal bones, _____ bones in each phalanx and ____ phalanges in the thumb


the _____ portion of the temporal bone contains the auditory ossicles, and connects the middle and inner ear

intervertebral foramina

the ____ ____ only exist when two vertebrae articulate


_______ foramen are only found in the cervical vertebrae


bifid spinous processes would only be found in which type of vertebra?


the _____ surface of the sacrum allows bones to attach to the pelvis


a sacral ________ is an alcove, or groove, in the sacral crest.


the _____ is the most lateral process of the scapular spine


the radius has a proximal ("top") end shaped like what?

sternal, acromial

the medial end of the scapula is called the ______ end, and the end that attaches to the scapula is called the ______ end

styloid processes

the wrist ligaments attach to the ____ ____ of the radius and ulna

intertubercular, bicipital

The ______, aka ______ groove, is between the greater and lesser tubercles on the proximal end of the humerus?

medical epicondyle

the bony protrusion that can be felt on the side of your elbow is called what?


the _____ fossa is between the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus on the posterior side


the _____ is a grooved articular surface on the distal end of the humerus and articulates with the ulna

radial, coronoid

the _____ and _____ fossae are on the distal end of the humerus on the anterior side

capitulum, radius

the ______ is the condyle on the lateral, distal end of the humerus and articulates with what bone(s)?

lesser, anterior proximal end

the deltoid tuberosity is basically an extension of what tubercle on what part of the humerus?

radial groove

the ________ groove is on the posterior side of the humerus


the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus are attachment points for what?

proximal, distal

the head of the radius is on the proximal/distal end of the radius, and the head of the ulna is on the proximal/distal end of the ulna?


the interosseous ridges are on the anterior/posterior surfaces of the radius and ulna?

olecranon, ulna

the ______ is the pointy part of the elbow. it is the proximal end of which bone?

coronoid processq

the _____ ______ is the projection of the distal end of the trochlear notch of the ulna

ulnar tuberosity

the ____ _____ is a ridge-like extension of the coronoid process of the ulna

radial tuberosity, ulnar notch

what two parts, other than the head, of the radius articulate with the ulna?


how many metacarpal bones are in the hand?

radius, ulna

the carpals articulate with the metacarpals, the_____ and the _______

scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform

"So long top part" stands for which carpal bones?

hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium

"Here comes the thumb" stands for which carpal bones?

symphysis pubis, sacroiliac, acetabulum

the coxal bones articulate with each other at the _____ ______, with the sacrum at the ______ joint, and with the femur at the _________

anterior iliac, ischial

muscles attach to the coxal bones at the _____ _____ spines and at the ______ tuberosities

acetabulum, patella, tibia

the femur articulates with the _____ on the coxal bones, and the _____ and ______ on the distal end.

tibia, talus

the fibula articulates with the _____ and the ______

iliac crest

the top, rounded edge of the coxal bone is cslled the ___ _____


how many bones in the hip?

ischium, obturator foramen

the _____ is the bone just below the acetabulum/ischium in the coxal bone. the hole formed by this bone and the pubis is called the ______ foramen

ischial tuberosity

the bony protrusions we sit on, on either sides of the butt, is called the _______ _______

greater sciatic notch

the big u-shaped indention on the margin between the ischial spine and the posterior inferior iliac spine is called the _____ _____ ______

coxal, tibia, patella, fibula

the femur articulates with the ________ bone, the _____ and the _______, but NOT the ______

greater and lesser trochanters, adductor

sites of muscle attachment on the femur are the _____ ... and the _____ tubercle

lateral and medial epicondyles

ligaments attach to the femur where?

femur, fibula, talus

the tibia articulates with the ____, the ____ and the ______

tibia, talus

the fibula articulates with the _____ and the ______


tendons from the ______ muscles attach to the tibial tuberosity

gluteal tuberosity

the gluteus maximus attaches to the ______ ______ of the femur


the tibia/fibula is always on the medial portion of the leg

linea aspera

the rough ridge on the back of the femur that is basically a continuation of the gluteal tuberosity is the _____ ______


the _____ groove is between the medial and lateral epicondyles on the anterior side of the femur

lateral malleolus, medial malleolus

the ankle bones are the _____ ______ of the fibula, and the ____- _______ of the tibia

intercondylar eminence

the "bump" between the articular facets of the proximal tibia is called the ______ ______

anterior crest

the ____ ____ of the tibia is the "shinbone"

tibia, fibula

the talus of the ankle articulates with what two bones?


the heel bone is known as the _______

fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

three major type of joints

dense regular connective

fibrous joints are made of what kind of tissue?

cavity, movement

fibrous joints have no joint _____ and are capable of little or no _____


_______ are fibrous joints with fibrous ligaments that have some movement


_______ are fibrous joints in which pegs fit into sockets and are only found in teeth

sutures, skull

and example of a fibrous joint would be the _______ that hold together the bones of the ______

radius, ulna

an example of a fibrous, syndesmotic joint would be the one between the ____ and ______

interosseous membrane

the radioulnar syndesmosis is joined by the ______ ______ connected to ridges of the same name on each bone

synchondroses, symphases

types of cartilagenous joints are _______, in which the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage, and ______, in which the bones are joined by fibrocartillage


epiphesial plates would be an example of what type of cartilaginous joint?

hyaline, fibro-

synchondroses joints are joined with ____- cartilage, while symphyses joints are joined with ____ cartilage

synovial, appendicular

______ joints are capable of consideral movement, and are mostly found in the _______ skeleton


______ are extensions of synovial joints that protect (mostly) skin, tendons or bone from structures that could rub against them

between vertebrae

a plane joint is between two flat surfaces. give an example of a plane joint


a pivot joint is composed of a cylindrical projection inside a ring. give an example of a pivot joint


a hinge joint has concave and convex surfaces. give an example of a hinge joint


give an example of a ball and socket joint


the joint between the atlas and the occipital condyles is an example of what type of joint?

carpals or metacarpals

a saddle joint is generally between bones in what joints?


_____ movements occur when two flat surfaces move across each other


_____ movement occurs with flexion and extension or abduction and adduction


_____ movements are rotation, pronation and supination, and circumduction


elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, excursion, opposition, reposition, inversion and eversion are all examples of what type of movement?

glenoid cavity, humerus

and example of a joint that allows circumduction would be between what two bony structures?

protraction, retraction

______ is the movement that "pulls out", and ______ is the movement that "Pulls in"

flexion, extension

movement at a hinge joint is limited to what two types?

ellipsoid, flexion, extension, rotation

the knee joint is a complex _______ joint that allows _____, ______ and slight _____ movements

dorsiflextion, plantar flexion

______ of the foot brings the toes closer to the shin, where _____ would "point" the toes

inversion, eversion

______ would turn the sole of the foot medially, while ____ would turn the sole of the foot laterally

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