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Biology final exam review Shreya
Terms in this set (26)
Comparison of DNA sequences of primates
In 1865, a biologist, St. George Jackson Mivart, constructed an evolutionary tree of existing primate species with many branches based on analysis of spinal columns. But to his dismay, another tree-based on limb comparison was quite different. Which of the following analyses would be best to include today to determine which tree is more accurate?
In 1942 a scientist testing part of a radar system discovered that a candy bar in his pocket had melted. Intrigued, he tried placing an egg near the system he was working on; it exploded and splattered him with a hot egg. In this way, it was discovered that part of the radar system could be used to cook foods, which led to the development of the microwave oven. When this kind of repurposing occurs in biological systems, it is called
In accordance with the principle of parsimony, scientists
Phylogenetic trees that minimize the number of evolutionary changes
In mammals, the presence of four limbs is ________ and hair is ________.
a shared ancestral character; a shared derived character unique to mammals
In the axolotl, development is altered. Adult axolotls retain features (external gills and aquatic life) that were juvenile in their ancestors, a phenomenon known as
In the three-domain system, the eukaryotes are represented
Only within the domain of Eukarya
In which situations would utilizing the molecular clock be least appropriate?
The function of these regions of DNA
It is estimated that the modern continents began to take shape
65 million years ago
Remove well adapted species and groups from earth, so it may take millions of years for species diversity to recover.
Miller was the first to show that
Amino acids and other organic molecules could have formed under conditions thought to resemble those of early earth.
Miller-type experiments have shown that
complex organic molecules can be produced by physical processes from inorganic components.
Molecular data can be used to assess relationships among the major groups of living organisms whose common ancestors lived millions or billions of years ago. Similar techniques can be used to assess relationships among populations within a species. How can molecular techniques be useful for such varied comparisons?
Faster-evolving gene sequences provide better data for comparisons among close relatives, whereas very slowly evolving sequences work best for distantly related taxa.
One of the strongest lines of evidence of a meteor or comet impact in the late Cretaceous is
a thin layer of iridium-enriched clay in late Cretaceous fossil strata.
Over a span of several thousand years, a number of species show adaptations to climate change: Drier, warmer conditions select for succulent vegetation and deep taproots in plants, burrowing in mammals and amphibians, and other similar adaptive changes. What could be predicted to happen if the climate shifts in the opposite direction and becomes progressively wetter and cooler?
Different adaptive trends will probably be favored in the new climatic environment.
Over the past 400 years, humans have documented the extinction of more than __________ species. This modern rate of species extinction is estimated to be ____________ the normal extinction rate seen in the fossil record.
1000; 100 times greater than
Over the past 500 million years, there have been ________ mass extinctions and each time, at least ________ of the species on Earth became extinct.
Plants and fungi first became established on land during the
Potassium-40 can be used to date ________ that are ________ old.
volcanic rocks and associated fossils; hundereds of millions of years
RNA molecules that can function like enzymes are called
Scientists evaluating the Cretaceous mass extinction have concluded that
An asteroid impact was probably the triggering event for the extinction
Scientists hypothesize that a major factor promoting the adaptive radiation of mammals was probably
The mass extinction of most dinosaurs, an event that opened up new ecological ideologies
Structures that evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor are
The "big bang" that produced the universe is thought to have occurred
12 to 14 billion years ago
The 14C:12C ratio can be used to date fossils that are up to approximately how old?
The branching "tree of life" analogy
fails to account for horizontal gene transfer, in which species on different branches exchange genes.
The earliest discovered fossils are of _______________ dating back to ______________ years ago.
prokaryotes; 3.5 billion
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