Industrial Revolution- general
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Terms in this set (24)
Shift from labor intense economy based on farming to capital intensive economy based on manufacturing by machines, specialized labor and industrial factories
Took decades to spread
Countryside to urban areas
High levels of productivity
Creation of wealthy industrial middle class and huge industrial working class (proletariat)
Began in Britain around 1750
Spread to Europe and the New World
Agricultural revolution of the 18th century
Increase in food production; feed more at lower prices and less labor
British could spend money on other things besides food (manufactured goods)
Population growth in 18th century
Supply of capital for investment in machines and factories
Central bank
Early Industrial Entrepreneurs
Political power in the hands of a group of progressive people who favored innovation in economic matters
Financial hazards
Mineral Resources
Ample supply of coal and iron
Exported short distances
Abundant rivers
New roads, bridges, canals that linked major industrial centers
No internal custom barriers to hinder domestic trade
Role of Government
Parliament- stable government and passing laws that protected private property
Freedom for private enterprise
Fewer restrictions on private entrepreneurs
Place for manufactured goods
Able to transport goods anywhere in the world
Produce cheaply the article most in demand
Rapid growing population
Demand from domestic and foreign markets old system couldnt keep up
Pushed the cotton industry to greater heights
Revolutionized the production of cotton goods and allowed the factory system to spread to other areas
James Watt- engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3x as quickly as previous engines
Rotary engine- turn shaft and drive machinery
Applied to spinning and weaving; more steam engines in Britain
Fired by coal so more flexibility w location
Cotton became Britain's most important product in value
Tireless source of power- depended on coal (unlimited)
Need for more coal and expansion of coal production
Led to transformation of railways
Most important single factor in promoting European economic progress in 1830s-40s
Start in mining operations in Germany
Wooden rails replaced by iron
Railways common w horses
Trevithick- steam powered locomotive on rail line
Stephenson- first modern railways in Britain were built
Rocket- 1st public railway line
16 mph
Reached 50
Expanded coal and iron industries, investors put money into joint-stock companies, new job opportunities, chapter and faster way of transportation, larger markers were created, entrepreneurs invested, visible confirmation of a new sense of power,
Continental countries made advancements but not as advanced as Britain
Lacked what Britain had
Lacked good roads and river transit
Tolls and guild restrictions that britian didnt have to face
Different style of entrepreneurship- no competition
Borrowed British techniques
British equipment sold illegally
Eventually learned british skills- Belgium, France, Germany
Govt in continental
Large role in economic affairs
Used tariffs to encourage industrialization
Friedrich List- National System of Political Economy
Said countries needed tariffs to compete w Britain
Less efficient machines in cotton industry
In 1840s- belgium had most modern cotton industry on planet
Old and new ways
In different regions
Steam engine used in mining more
Iron and coal led the way
Around 1850 continent's cotton industry grew rapidly
Distribution of wealthRichest 10% of the population in cities held 70-80% of the wealth Rich got richer, poor (increase in purchasing power) did not get poreerPopulation explosion of 19 th centuryPopulation accelerated in 19th century Population explosion; in 50 years almost doubled Birthrates were delcining tho Population from the decline in death rates through Europe Drop in deaths from families, disease, war Inscrease in food supply spread to more areas Industrialized areas, population rose Congestion in countryside Overpopulation worsened problem of rural poverty If overpopulation, people emigrateUrbanization , 1800-50People moved to cities to find jobs Rapid urbanization Manufacturing and industry By 1850 50% lived in cities Britain forced to become food importer not exporterUrban life in early 19 th centuryMiserable livng conditions because of rapid growth Wealthy middle class (rich) lived in suburbs with individual houses Inner ring of city- lower middle class center of city poor- overcrowded; tenements; back sanitary conditions; used as sewers; bad smell; adulteration of food to sell more for cheaper; people shorter because of disease; prostittuion, crime, sexual immoralityDemographic changesPeople in danger because of disease and bad living conditions; overthrow the established order; try to make changeEdwin ChadwickEliminating the poverty in cities Poor Law Comission Living conditions of working classes Report On the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain b People dying because of conditons Modern sanitary reforms: sewers and supply of piped water Britain made National Board of Health Fear of cholera- deadly diseaseNew industrial entrepreneurial classRise of capitalism produced middle class (rich) Constructed factories, purchased machines, and figured out where the markers were Greedy Organized factory, set prices, trained supervisors Great opportunity but also risk Many industrial enterprises were small When they went bankrupt, new people could enter race for profits Diverse social origins Many were merchants Dissenting religious minorities- Quakers- lacked other opportunities In britain- aristocrats became entrepreneurs By 1850 being replaced by business aristocracy From middle class Had much wealth and play important role in societyNew social class of industrial workersWorking class was a mixture of groups Factory workers form an industrial proletariat (union) In the city artisans remained the largest group of urban workers; passed to guilds but guilds losing their power Servants formed another group Many women from countryside Terrible working conditions 12-16 hours, 6 days, 30 mins for lunch and dinner No security, no min wage High temps Coal mines Hurt backs Cave ins Tunnels 3 or 4 ftWomen workers50% textile workers Half of what men were Domestic servants Mostly single women Women went on to caring for family and doing low pay jobPeople's CharterAttempts of British to improve their condition "First important political movement of working men organized during the nineteenth century" Achieve political democracy People's Charter by London Working Men's Association Right to vote, rights about parliament Women fighting for husbands not themselves Parliament rejected petitions Important because gave working class consciousness Universal male suffrage- every adult male over 21 should have the right to vote; only people since the 1300s who can vote are rich males; now everyone can; only 1% of the British population could vote; will be able to run for office and put poor people in office- take over Parliament and pass laws Secret ballot- people have to voice a vote; people had to go up to choose ballot so they know who they voted for; want a secret ballot so no one will be able to tell who they vote for Parliament salaries- get paid; people who had been elected to Parliament before were rich No property qualifications for members of Parliament- not enough money; don't have to have any property to vote Annual sessions/elections of Parliament- king cant dissolve parliament Equal electoral districts- so Republicans and DemocratsLudditesSkilled craftspeople in Midlands and northern England Attacked machines that they believed threatened livelihood Viewed as naive Local support receivedIndustrial reform of 1830s-40sLegislation of 1830s and 1840s affected children in textile factories and mines but no where else Pottery works- 17% workers 11 or under Factory Act of 1833- children unemployed declined; replaced w women 50% in textile Half of what men were Outlawed by 1867 Combination Acts in 1799 and 1800 outlawing associations of workers Repealed Factory acts passed between 1802 and 1819 Limited labor for children between 9 and 16 to 12 hours a day Reading and math No one was enforcing Factory acts of 1833 Strengthened earlier labor legislation Included textile factories Could fine if broke the law Elementary education Ten Hours Act Reduced the workday between 13 and 18 to 10 hours Women 10 hour limit Coal Mines Act No mine work for boys under 10 and womenEnglish Poor Law Act of 1834Established workhouses where jobless people were forced to live Like prison to make people scared of poorInd. Rev's effect on standard of livingHigher incomes, greater consumer choices 1st half of 19th century Moved to cities, found work Increased employment, lowered prices of consumer goods; household income Dismissed workers whenever they wanted; no steady wage; bad conditions; most of income on food and clothing 1st half: widening gap between rich and poor Gainers: middle class 2nd half better than 1st