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Psych2500 - Exam 4
Terms in this set (50)
T or F: The low-ball technique does NOT appear to actually be effective in influencing people or changing their behavior
T or F: People who are processing persuasive messages via the central route tend to rely on surface cues such as source attractiveness and the reactions of others
Your cousin asks you to pledge $5.00 for a school charity one year. The next year, she asks you to pledge $20.00. And the following year she asks you to pledge $50.00 the first year, her "gradual buildup approach" is successful. In social psychology this approach to persuasion is known as the
Carlos is a freelance graphic designer. Last month, a client hired him to design a website, at a flat rate of $1000. Carlos met with the client numerous times to sketch out the project, and engaged in a fair amount of background research. Just as he was getting ready to sign a contract for the job, the client mentioned, "Oh, by the way, I also need you to design 3 catalog covers under your contract." Even though Carlos would never design a website AND three catalog covers for use $1000, he had already invested so much time and energy in this client that he ended up just saying yes to everything. Carlos told his friends that he was "tricked" by the client. Social psychologists would say that he was a victim of the
The low-ball technique operates, at least partially, on the principle of
An apartment manager lists a "luxury penthouse" in the newspaper for an astoundingly low price, even though he has no such units available. The idea is to lure people in, and then try to sell them his relatively mediocre apartments. The manager is apparently using an influence technique known as the
Suppose that you are having a garage sale, and have decided to negotiate with buyers rather than display fixed prices. Your technique is to quote an astronomically high price, and then "bargain" by coming down to a lower, more reasonable price. You hope that the lower price will then appear to be supremely fair. You are apparently using the
Suppose that your friend Victor gives a bottle of red wine for your birthday, and tells you that only 100 bottles of that wine exist in the world. Suddenly the wine seems very important and special. This would seem to be due to the ______ principle
Research suggests that there are two main factors that make a source credible:
expertise and trustworthiness
Joe is a freshman at Princeton University. All else being equal, who will be most persuasive to him based on the principles of source likeability?
Jordan, a freshman at Princeton University
Meg is an extremely attractive woman. Because of this, people often expect her to be very smart and pleasant as well. Thus, Meg likely benefits because of the ____ effect of her physical attractiveness
What does the research suggest about the role of distraction in persuasion?
Distracting your audience decreases persuasion when you have a strong argument, but increases persuasion when you have a weak argument
In the terminology of the elaboration likelihood model, people relying on automatic, nonconscious processing are using the _____ route
Research suggests that a number of conditions must be met in order for a person to process a persuasive message using the central route (rather than the peripheral route). What is one of these conditions?
The person must be motivated to process the message carefully
Suppose that you were attending a lecture on global warming. In evaluating the integrity of the lecture, which factor would least likely be a peripheral cue?
what the statistics cite by the speaker indicate when comparing year-to-year temperatures
T or F: When MIlgram surveyed psychiatrists prior to conducting his famous "obedience to authority" studies, the psychiatrists predicted that above 60% of participants would deliver the most severe shocks
T or F: Conformity is more likely in larger groups than in smaller groups
The text defines prosocial behavior as
any behavior that is good for other people or for society as a whole
According to the textbook, the opposite of prosocial behavior is
Stanley Milgram's classic research on obedience to authority was spurred on by - and conducted in the wake of - _______
WWII and the Holocaust
In MIlgram's classic research on obedience to authority, which of the following things are true?
When participants hesitated during the study, an experimenter would repeatedly prompt them to continue
In his classic research on obedience to authority, Milgram found that roughly _____ of participants eventually "went all the way" and administered the highest levels of shocks
All of the following factors EXCEPT one lowered obedience levels of the Milgram paradigm. Which one?
the participants being a women
according to evolutionary theory, it can be adaptive for people to help others who share their genes. This idea is known as
levels of conformity are lower
in smaller groups and among those lower in the need for acceptance
McKelvey sees her cousin crying because she has lost a toy. She feels sad her cousin feels sad. McKelvey is experiencing which emotional response/
If Maria helps another person with the sole goal of increasing his or her welfare, and expects nothing from the other person in return, then she is said to be engaging in
Egoistic helping is motivated by _____ and the end goal si to ______
personal distress; reduce one's own distress
In general, when it comes to helping others, males tend to be more helpful than females in many situations. In which of the following situations are males probably NOT more helpful?
Helping to teach an autistic child to read by volunteering on an ongoing, weekly basis at a local facility
Under what circumstances are attractive victims are more likely to receive help than unattractive victims?
under all circumstances -- regardless of the helper's gender and regardless of the victim's gender
The tendency for people to believe that the world is essentially a fair place -- that people usually get what they deserve and deserve what they get -- is known as _____
belief in a just world
In social psychology, the story of Kitty Genovese's murder has been closely linked with the study of
the bystander effect
You are driving to school and notice that there is an injured dog lying on the side of the road -- presumably the victim of a hit-and-run. You are in a very busy part of town, however, so you decide that your help probably isn't needed. Social psychologists would say that _____ prevented you from helping in this case
diffusion of responsibility
In terms of your willingness to offer help to others, audience inhibition can be an obstacle to which of the following/
deciding whether or not to help
T or F: While males commit most of the violent acts around the world, there are some societies in which females commit the majority of the violence
T or F: The weapons effect is the tendency for aggression to increase as a result of the mere presence of a weapon
Which situation is an example of hostile aggression?
Mr Y intentionally humiliates an annoying coworker
According to the definitions of aggression and violence used in the text, which statement is true?
Not all aggressive acts are violent,but all violent acts are aggressive
At the most general level, the term antisocial behavior refers to
behavior that damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesierable
Research suggests that people often learn to behave in particular ways based on modeling (observing and copying others' behaviors). Which statement best describes how aggressive and nonaggressive models work?
Aggressive models can increase aggressive behavior and nonaggressive models can decrease it
Research on social learning theory and aggression suggests that aggressive models can influence people to behave more aggressively _______
regardless of whether the model is live or filmed, and regardless of whether the model's target is a real person or a doll
What to most experts today say about the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
most agree that frustration and aggression are strongly linked, but most disagree with the idea that one always involves the other
Females are more likely than males to engage in ______ aggression
Empirical research leads to the conclusion that
violent media exposure increases aggressive behavior
Research examining the link between crime and climate has found that _______ are most common in hot regions than in cool regions
only violent crimes
Over the next several years, global warming is predicted to lead to increases in
Research on the relationship between violent and self-esteem shows that
violence is associated with high self-esteem, not low self-esteem
Social psychologists Richard Nisbett and Dov Cohen found that, in the U.S., men from the South tend to respond to results more aggressively compared to men from the North. They argued that a key reason for the difference is the face that
there is a southern culture of honor
In cultures of honor, ______ seems to be the primary cause of violence
Compared to societies that do not have a culture of honor, societies that do have a culture of honor tend to
place a relatively high value on respect and virtue
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