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Arts and Humanities
History test 3 ID's
Terms in this set (34)
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
The battle that ended Rome's expansion into Germania.
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (Autumn, 9 CE), conflict between the Roman Empire and Germanic insurgents. The Germanic leader Arminius ambushed three Roman legions headed by Publius Quinctilius Varus. Arminius destroyed all three legions and ultimately prevented Rome from subjugating Germania east of the Rhine River.
A Roman historian of the early second century C.E., best known for a multivolume work giving biographies of the Roman emperors, The Lives of the Caesars.
He was different from other historians, he was not concerned with warfare and mostly concerned with social History
He is our best source of information for the julio claudians
Fifth roman ruler of that period, killed his own mother, and he had a cruel and rather strict way of doing things. He had participated in the chariot races; Olympics and when the army of the roman empire started to dislike Nero he fled to an outline villa where he begged a servant to commit suicide so he felt the courage to do so himself.
His infamous reign is usually associated with tyranny, extravagance, and debauchery.
Emperor of Rome and founder of the Flavian dynasty who consolidated Roman rule in Germany and Britain and reformed the army and brought prosperity to the empire
he and his two sons of the Flavian dynasty brought 30 years of reasonably ruled good government
Vespasian put people to work on a famous structure known as the Roman colosseum
Roman emperor A.D. 98-117
2nd good emperor and general, expanded empire east to reach it's largest size, built trajans market, column, and forum, increased social welfare
the empire reached its greatest territorial extent during his reign
during his reign Rome controlled all land touching the Mediterranean sea
AD 117 - 138 - loved travel, architecture and Greek things. Reduced Italy to an
imperial province. Built a wall between Britain and Scotland). Adopted Antoninus Pius.
He is most famous for his wall, Hadrian's wall
The "Barracks Emperors"
Between 235-284 A.D. Rome was led by the barracks emperors. They were approximately 30 soldiers who fought their way to the ranks to cease control of the empire.
of all 30, only 1 is said to have died a natural death.
there were economic issues arising
He was a soldier, determined to restore strength in the empire through Autocratic government rule.
He ruled dominuse or god like
He made an effort to control everything and created reforms because he saw many problems with Rome at the time.
He divided the empire into the Western and Eastern empire as he saw the empire was too large for one man to rule.
He chose a colleague to rule the western part.
He also created a second army because of military crisis
Constantine the Great
Roman emperor from 306 to 337
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
First Christian emperor of Rome
Constantine reunited the empire that Diocletian split into Western and Eastern halves
Attila the Hun
405-453, was the Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea
Invaded France and was met with collation of Romans and Germans although some did find alliance where they met up at a place called Chalons
He came to power on heels of the collapse of the Western Roman empire
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia(church of holy wisdom), as well as a new legal code
He knew someone had to get into Romes legal system and created a book "Corpus Juris Civilis" which would create a huge impact.
He created the corpus Juris Civilis or body of civil law as he knew Rome needed a better law system.
former prostitute who Justinian fell in love with
the wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt. She encouraged him because she did not want to give up her current living position. The power she had was something she never experienced before knowing Justinian.
A.D. 622 Mohammad's flight to medina when pushed out by an opposition party in Mecca
This marks a turning point in Mohammad's career
When he was pushed out of Mecca he fled to Medina where he found people more open to Islam as they were a monotheistic people
in 630 A.D. Mohammed sent the task of cleaning the Kaaba and returned to Mecca with those he converted to Islam in Medina. He took back Mecca by force and made Kaaba the new center of his religion, Islam.
Clovis I (Merovingian Dynasty)
King of Merovingian Dynasty (Germanic King)
He came to power when he was just a boy, as he became an adult he would make war on other Frankish Tribes
By the time of his death 511 A.D. he created somewhat of an empire
in 496 he promised the Christian god in return for victory he and his men would become Christians
He was the first Germanic king converted to Roman Christianity and not an arryan which enabled him to get support of Roman church
Charles Martel "The Hammer"
He created an army similar to that of Calvary (horse back) and this was the time when stirrup/ saddle was introduced to Europe
King of the Franks; made an alliance with Pope Gregory II; Promised to protect Boniface's missionary work; Held off the Muslim invaders in Gaul at the Battle of Tours in 732. He stopped the Muslim expansion into west
Pepin the Short
When he began his reign he was not actually a king which bothered him, he enlisted in the aid of the pope for help in getting rid of the Merovingian king
He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
Treaty of Verdun
843 A.D. Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons who wanted his throne after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms known as England, France, Germany which shaped modern Europe
Motte and Bailey Castle
castles constructed on top of an earthen mound, with a wooden-fenced stockade encircling the wooden fort
Originally, these castles were constructed from timber and earth alone; they were cheap and easy to build and didn't require any special design.
A ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials
St. Simeon Stylites
A young shepherd man who withdrew from the world and took refuge on 60 feet pillar of stone; he stayed there for over 30 years (he endured pain, weather, and only had enough food to keep him barely alive).
Eventually the churchmen of the time looked at St. Simeon and knew Asceticism was not the life for everyone
St. Benedict of Nursia
the founder of monasticism in the west and wrote the Benedictine Rule which monks and nuns follow and one day all monostatic routes would follow the rule .
he was a hermit but he gave that life up and went to the top of a mountain called monte cassino where he founded monastery for himself and his fathers.
Battle of Manzikert
(1071 CE) Saljuq Turks defeat Byzantine armies in this battle in Anatolia; shows the declining power of Byzantium.
Byzantine empire a great deal of territory to the turks
Pope Urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
He preached the first crusade, he encouraged the nobles to put their differences and to strive forward for rewards.
This sermon of his was so moving that the crowd was shouting "Deus vult"- God wills it
Alfred the Great
(849-899 A.D.) King of Wessex from 871 to 899; he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo- Saxon England under his control. He compiled a code of laws and promoted learning.
He prevented England from falling to the Danes and promoted learning and literacy. Compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle began during his reign, circa 890.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who gathered his army and invaded England in 1066 and claimed the English crown
He defeated the English in a great battle at a place known as Hastings
When he defeated the English he became known as William the conqueror
William and his sons would bring good rule down through 1135 A.D.
Richard the Lionheart
English leader who helped lead the (unsuccessful) Third Crusade against Saladin and the Muslims
he was a great warrior, leader of third crusade, and spent much of his reign fighting the French king
he was a great warrior, but not so much a great king as most of his time was spent in warfare rather than government affairs and kingly matters
he was not a warrior
He antagonized the nobility, the church, he was such a bad ruler that in 1215 the nobles forced him to sign the magna carta, or the great charter.
magna carta made John a constitutional monarch
Known as louis the large, but very capable king, his chief contribution is that he brought the unruly nobles under control and gave his successors a firm base of power to create a strong monarchy
He would give his son Louis VII to marry a woman known as Eleanor although their marriage wouldn't last
She was not a typical medieval woman
She and her first husband louis VII were incompatible
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him
Philip II (Augustus)
first king of France who expanded its territory and effectively organized his kingdom with Paris as its capital
he was able to take back most of the lands England possessed in France
Against king John he was able to take back most French areas.
Otto I (the Great)
very vigorous in putting down rebellions, marries an Italian, turns his son and son in law against him, but wants to forgive them, is later crowned Holy roman emperor, can provide safety and stability, Ottonian renaissance
He began construction of a powerful German state by relying on the church
He increased power in Bishops and Abbots
He also took control of Duchies by substituting his relatives and favorites as rulers
He forced Magyars to settle down and never threaten Germany again after a victory at the battle of Lechfield
A.D. 1056-1106 Salian Dynasty- Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism.
He failed in large part because of the opposition he faced from the church
the church had become militant in his day and the pope of the time wanted to be free of state control
(1452-1485, A.D. ) House of York. He was made Duke of Gloucester in 1461 when his brother Edward IV deposed the Lancastrian king Henry VI, as part of the Wars of the Roses. Upon Edward's death in 1483, Richard served as regent to his nephew Edward V, but likely had the boy murdered in the Tower of London that year. Two years later, Richard died at the hands of Henry Tudor's Lancastrian forces at Bosworth Field, ending the Wars of the Roses and beginning the reign of Henry VII.
The period when all popes were French and resided in Avignon, France, starting with Clement V. This angered Italians and led to the Great Schism.
50-year period in which the Israelites were exiled from Judah and held in Babylon
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