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Lecture 1 - regulatory & motivational systems
Terms in this set (21)
What is homeostasis?
maintain internal stability during external changing environment.
Does a positive or negative feedback loop promote homeostasis?
When are positive feedback loops good teleologically?
when the process needs to go to completion (child birth)
What are the 3 criteria for a set of neurons to be called a neuromodulatory system?
1. small number of neurons
2. diffuse, widespread projections
3. organized for modulatory effects rather than specific info transfer (unlike sensory and motor systems)
What is the locus coeruleus?
modulatory system secreting norepinephrine (NE)
Do modulatory systems usually act fast or slow?
slow onset and slow termination (long lasting)
Are neuromodulatory systems straightforward/ 1:1?
no. often one molecule can cause multiple outputs depending on the other inputs. (modulatory)
List the james-lange & cannon-bard theories of emotion & the main difference between the two.
J-L: stim -->body change --> conscious awareness
C-B: stim --> subcortical unconscious activation) --> conscious awareness + body change
main difference: does conscious awareness depend on body change?
Which theory of emotion requires conscious awareness for the experience of emotion?
tradition (stim--> conscious awareness --> body change)
NOT J-L or C-B.
which theory of emotion is most correct? tradition vs james-lange vs cannon-bard.
all have aspects that are correct and incorrect. it is not a straight line pathway, each component is bidirectional.
What is the difference between modulating and mediating?
Modulation just somehow affects the behavior, but may not give rise to the actual behavior.
Mediate means that it is actually underlying the behavior.
What kind of graph does arousal state usually output & is it a modulator or mediator of other behaviors?
Inverted U curve
Modulates but does not mediate.
What is a function of the hypothalamus?
coordinates peripheral (PNS) expression of emotional states
If you stimulate the medial vs lateral hypothalamus, how does that affect aggression?
medial: emotional aggression (cat thinks mouse is a threat, is scared and attacks)
lateral: predatory aggression (different attack form)
If you stimulute only a small number of neurons in the VM hypothalamus, can that cause a drastic changes in behavior?
yes. (change from lover to fighter mouse). this is a modulatory system: small set of neurons, large output change.
What evidence is there that the amygdala may play a role in empathy?
amygdala response to faces with a fear expression. faces themselves are not dangerous, but they imply that that person is seeing something dangerous. amygdala is allowing for the interpretation of others emotions from their facial expressions.
there are so many PNS effects of amygdala activation. what is modulating/ coordinating all of these different physiological responses at the same time to produce things like fight/flight response?
central nucleus (main output of the amygdala)
What anatomical evidence implies that conscious awareness is not necessary for the fear response?
sensory afferents directly going to the amygdala can stimulate the fear response (without passing through cortex).
But cortex/conscious awareness can modulate the fear response.
What is the frontal lobe responsible for? what does a frontal lobotomy cause?
inhibiting unwanted behavior; executive function; planning; personality etc;
frontal lobotomy = lack of inhibition of behaviors (likely not loss of moral standards)
Are emotional and cognitive (reason) systems separate in the brain? evidence?
yes. they are separate. sometimes they work together, other times they oppose and one wins over the other.
evidence: "emotional" brain regions more active during moral-personal decision (will you push someone off bridge to save 10 people)
"cognitive" brain regions more active during moral-impersonal decisions (move train to kill 1 person instead of 5).
-reaction time increases when you are faced with decision that has opposite emotional and cognitive components.
When should we implore more cognitive control over emotional? (think vs blink)
when there are systemic biases.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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