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CPR DLA 18: Airflow and Airways
Terms in this set (24)
Flow Volume loop
Graphic way of representing the events that occur during forced inspiration and expiration
What is PEF? FEV25-75% changes suggest ..... airway involvement?
Peak Expiratory flow (high lung volume)
What is FEV1 ........ ?
Forced expiratory flow in 1 sec
What are the 2 portions of the Flow Volume loops?
1- Effort dependent portion
2- Effort independent portion
The Effort dependent portion of the Flow volume loop occurs due to what 3 factors?
1- Velocity and Force of Muscle contraction
2- Elastic recoil of Lung
3- Airway patency
The Effort independent portion occurs due what 2 factors?
1- Elastic recoil of Lung
2- Airway resistance --> Equal pressure point and Dynamic compression
What does dynamic compression of airways do?
What is the result of this in terms of the flow volume loop?
Increases resistance to airflow and effectively limits flow during expiration
No matter how hard you try to exhale, the flow is limited by the collapsed airways
Effort independence region
What is the equal pressure point?
When does dynamic airway compression begin?
It is the point at which pressure inside the airway equals pressure outside (intrapleural pressure)
When the pleural pressures = airway pressures
After the equal pressure point (EPP)
DOWNSTREAM FORM EPP
UPSTREAM FROM EPP ALWAYS REMAINS OPEN
What are the effects of dynamic airway compression?
-Occurs at lower lung volumes
-Results in effort independent portion of the flow-volume loop
Does more effort produce more flow?
thus, the effort-independent portion of the flow-volume loop
During dynamic compression, how is flow determined?
By alveolar pressure minus pleural pressure
and is therefore, independent of effort
What is the Formula to calculate Transairway pressure (Pta)?
Pta = Paw - Ppl
Paw= airway pressure
Ppl= pleural pressure
What is the formula to calculate Transpulmonary pressure (Pl)?
Pl = Pa - Ppl
Pa = Alveolar pressure
Ppl = Pulmonary pressure
Changes during Breathing Cycle and Dynamic airway compression
Equal Pressure point (EPP) is when ... pressures equal ..... pressures?
In Pathological states of .... lung compliance such as Emphysema, the elastic recoil is force of the lung is ....?
Thus, EPP occurs at higher lung volumes
The Obstructive flow volume loop shifts to the ....? While the Restrictive flow volume loop shifts to the ...?
Airway resistance dramatically decreases down the ....?
This happens in cases of high lung compliance such as emphysema
Airway resistance is highest in the .... sized bronchi and is low in ..... airways? Contraction of bronchiole smooth muscle narrows airways and increases ....?
When does airway resistance decrease?
Resistance decreases as lung volumes rise because the airways are then pulled open
At high lung volumes, there is increased traction on small airways pulling them open
As the Radius decreases the resistance to airflow ...?
Airflow and Resistance - Poiseuille's law
Flow is equal to ...... divided by ....? In COPD/Asthma there is a large increase in airway ...?
In Terminal bronchioles airflow is truly ....? While in the Trachea airflow is ...?
Rest of the airways is characterized by Transitional flow ie flow is intermediate between laminar and turbulent
Recommended textbook explanations
Physics for the IB Diploma Coursebook
K. A. Tsokos, Mark Headlee, Peter Hoeben
Introduction to Electrodynamics
David J. Griffiths
Engineering Electromagnetics (Irwin Electronics & Computer Enginering)
John Buck, William Hayt
Jerry S. Faughn, Serway
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