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VTHT 2349 Vet Nurse Care Chapter 25
Terms in this set (38)
When an electrolyte solution is administered, approximately _______ will remain in the vascular space and ____ will move into the interstitium.
The use of sodium bicarbonate should only be used when the blood pH is approximately
A useful guideline for RBC transfusion in dogs is that 2 mL/kg of whole blood or 1 mL/kg of packed RBCs will raise the PCV by
Measurement of blood ________ levels is used to indicate the level of anaerobic metabolism in the tissue.
What is the typical normal systolic blood pressure range for dogs and cats?
110 to 140 mmHg
Dogs, have a circulating blood volume of approximately,
80 to 90 mL/kg.
How much fluid should an 84 kg St. Bernard be administered if it is assessed to be 6% dehydrated?
Dextrose solutions greater than 2.5% should not be given subcutaneously
because skin sloughing and abscess formation may occur.
In foals more than 12 hours old, an immunoglobulin (Ig-G) concentration of less than __________ is an indication for plasma transfusion.
Why do patients with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia often fail to respond to platelet transfusions?
Platelets are actively destroyed.
Linear fluid maintenance requirement calculations (such as 60 mL/kg/day) tend to _____________ rates in small canine patients (<10 kg) and __________________ rates in large patients (>30 kg).
The rate of fluid replacement should be altered in animals with
all of the above
Sodium bicarbonate can be administered to patients with ___________ because it helps to promote a shift of potassium (K+) into cells in exchange for hydrogen ions (H+).
Donor horses should be weighed and should have PCV/TP measured before blood collection. Ideally, the PCV should be greater than______.
_____________ fluid therapy involves correction of dehydration, replacement of ongoing losses, and provision of maintenance fluid requirements.
The recommended maximum blood donation for dogs is ___________ of its blood volume.
15% to 20%
Enteral fluids are often used in
Colloids ________ by increasing the oncotic pressure of blood
move fluid into the vascular space.
________ fluids should never be used in fluid resuscitation (administered rapidly as a bolus) because they are highly ineffective for expanding vascular volume and could cause overly rapid changes in blood osmolality.
If donated blood will be transfused immediately, the anticoagulant ___________ is acceptable to use during blood collection, but it will not support RBC metabolism during storage.
The high osmolality of ___________ saline will cause a shift of fluid from the interstitium to the intravascular space, promoting rapid expansion of vascular volume (volume expansion) to aid in resuscitation.
What type of replacement fluids is recognized for its ability to expand vascular volume through its influence on oncotic pressure?
Plasma that is used within ______ hour(s) of collection is considered to be fresh plasma.
When would it be appropriate to target a low systolic blood pressure (90 to 100 mmHg)?
When the patient is hemorrhaging.
Animals in diabetic ketoacidosis often present with
What is the typical packed cell volume (PCV) cut-off where a whole blood transfusion should be considered for a patient that is actively bleeding?
PCV of 20% to 25%
One of the greatest concerns with volume overload from fluid therapy is
Which of the following is a primary benefit of delivering fluids via the subcutaneous route?
Its allows for client administration at home
To increase the likelihood of having a compatible blood donor in a horse you should
choose a donor horse of the same breed as the recipient.
Fluid resuscitation administration should be titrated to effect based on clinical response the best practice of this would be to
administer one-fourth of the shock dose over 15 minutes and then reassessing for improvement in perfusion parameters
In hospitalized patients, quantifying water losses can be accomplished by using urine collection devices, or by weighing fluids (vomit, diarrhea, and urine) collected in absorbable pads. This is achieved by weighing the soiled pads and then subtracting the weight of the pads themselves. When taking this approach
every gram of weight lost is equal to 1 mL of fluid loss
0.45% Sodium chloride (NaCl), is an example of a ____________fluid.
Equine cross-matching may be difficult to interpret because of __________.
The recommended maximum blood donation for cats is ______
11 to 15 mL/kg
Cats have a circulating blood volume that is _______ per kg than horses or dogs
Dogs do not have naturally occurring antibodies; therefore, with regard to red blood cells,
a transfusion reaction is less likely after a first transfusion.
Hypothermic patients that need whole blood transfusions should receive
blood warmed to room temperature.
In ________________, an initial emergency blood transfusion may be given without pretesting because the likelihood of naturally occurring RBC antibodies is low.
horses and dogs
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