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Terms in this set (68)
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and absorption of nutrients.
Consists of organs that mechanically and chemically digest food.
The path food takes from the mouth to the anus.
Includes the accessory organs - salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas.
3) Muscular layer
The 4 distinct layers the walls of the alimentary canal consist of.
Mucosa (mucus membrane)
Surface epithelium and underlying connective tissue.
The internal passageway of the alimentary canal.
Folds within the lumen, increase the surface area for...
Connective tissue and blood vessels that nourish surrounding tissue and remove absorbed materials.
Provides movement of material through the canal.
Decrease the diameter.
Decreases the length.
Serosa (serous layer)
Outside layer (visceral peritoneum) that produces serous fluid, allows the organs to slide freely over each other.
The 2 general movements of the alimentary canal.
In the small intestine, mixing of food items by contracting and relaxing.
Propelling wave-like movements pushing material in one direction.
Starts the process of digestion.
Cheeks and lips
Holds food in mouth.
Connected to the floor of the mouth via the lingual frenulum.
Moves food under the teeth and is composed of skeletal muscle.
Projections that contain the taste buds.
The posterior of the tongue
Anchored to the hyoid bone and contains lingual tonsils - composed of lymphatic tissue.
The roof of the mouth.
Muscular portion with downward projection uvula.
Mechanically digest food.
How many adult teeth are there?
Aid in digestion of carbohydrates.
1) Serous cells
2) Mucous cells
The 2 types of cells that secrete saliva.
Produce salivary amylase.
Breaks starch and glycogen into disaccharides.
1) Parotid glands
2) Submandibular glands
3) Sublingual glands
The 3 major salivary glands.
Largest of the glands, lie just inferior of each ear.
On the floor of the mouth, produce vicious saliva.
Smallest of the salivary glands on the floor of the mouth.
These 2 lead to the stomach.
Connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx and esophagus.
The 3 parts of the pharynx.
Provides airway for breathing.
Posterior to the soft palate passageway for food and air.
Passageway to the esophagus.
The straight tube that is a passageway for food into the stomach.
Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)
Closes off the stomach so gastric juice doesn't move into esophagus.
3) Body region
The 4 parts of the stomach.
Upper portion of the stomach.
Upper chamber of the stomach.
Central cavity of the stomach.
Pyloric canal leading to the small intestines.
The valve that controls emptying the stomach.
1) Chief cells
2) Mucous cells
3) Parietal cells
The 3 types of cells that produce gastric juice.
Produce and secrete digestive enzymes.
Inactive precursor secreted by chief cells.
Forms when pepsinogen hits hydrochloric acid, breaking it down.
Most important enzyme that breaks down proteins.
Produce mucus that protects the stomach lining.
Release a solution containing hydrochloric acid.
Substance that helps the small intestine absorb vitamin B12.
Taste, smell, or by eating
When is gastric juice produced?
Hormone that increases production of gastric glands.
Produced in the small intestine, causes the release of digestive enzymes and also acts as a hunger suppressant.
Nutrients not absorbed through stomach.
Some water, lipid soluble drugs absorbed.
Produces digestive fluid/pancreatic juice.
Produces enzyme that digests carbs, fats, nucleic acids, and proteins
Digests carbs by splitting molecules of starch into disaccharides.
Breaks triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.
Breaks down dna/rna into nucleotides which can be absorbed.
Trypsin, chimtrypsin, and carboxypeptidase
Break down proteins into amino acids.
Essential amino acids
Get them from the food you eat.
Enzymes are functional until...
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Pancreas will be digested
What happens if enzymes are activated inside of the pancreas?
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