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Terms in this set (53)
What is the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)?
The amount of nutrient estimated to meet the need of 50% of the healthy individuals in an age and gender group
What is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?
Sufficient to meet the need of nearly all healthy individuals
What is Adequate Intake (AI)?
Approximations of the average nutrient intake by a healthy population
What is Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)?
Maximum levels of daily intake of a nutrient without any risk
What are the 2 groups of micronutrients?
Vitamins and minerals
What are the 2 types of vitamins?
Fat soluble (Vit A, D, E, K) and water soluble (Vit B, C)
What are the different types of minerals?
Macrominerals (Ca2+ and Mg2+) and trace minerals (iron, iodine, zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, fluoride and boron)
What are the 3 forms of vitamin A?
retinol, retinal, retinoic acid
retinal reversibly binds with _____ and function as _____ _______
opsins; light sensor
retinoid acid function as ________ _________, regulating cell __________ and ___________
steroid hormones; cell growth and differentiation
Vitamin A is stored in the ______ as ________ _________
liver; retinol palmitate
Vitamin D functions as _________ _________maintaining __________________
steroid hormones; Ca2+ homeostasis
What is the main source of vitamin D?
Vitamin D deficiency can cause _____ in children and ___________ in adults
Vitamin E occurs in the diet as _______ and _________
tocopherols and tocotrienols
Vitamin E ______ the risk of CV disease by preventing oxidation of LDL
What is the dietary source of vitamin E?
Vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids
Vitamin K is essential for _________ and ____________
blood clotting and bone mineralization
Warfarin is a vitamin K _______ that works as a ______________ by inhibiting vitamin K _______________________
antagonist; blood thinner; epoxide reductase
What are some dietary sources of vitamin K?
Green vegetables and is synthesized by intestinal bacteria
Thiamin (B1) is rapidly converted to ________________ and ____________________
thiamin pyrophosphate and thiamin triphosphate
Thiamin pyrophosphate functions as a cofactor in ____________
Thiamin triphosphate functions in transmission of _____________
Severe thiamin deficiency is known as __________ which is characterized by muscular atrophy and weakness
Riboflavin (B2) acts as a precursor of cofactors such as ____ and _____
FAD and FMN
Where is Riboflavin found?
In milk, eggs, meat and cereal
What are the 2 forms of Niacin (B3)?
Niacin (nicotinic acid) and niacinamide (nicotinamide)
Severe B3 deficiency is known as _______
Where is Niacin found?
In meat, peanut and cereals
What are the 3 forms of Pyridoxine (B6)?
Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and pyridoxal
Where is Pyridoxine found?
In meat, vegetables and whole-grain cereal
Biotin (B7) serves as a cofactor for activation of _____ in ______________
CO2; carboxylase enzymes
Biotin is covalently bound to _______ side chains
When might Biotin deficiency occur?
When raw egg white is consumed regularly or PREGNANCY
Folic acid (B9) is converted to _________
What is folic acid used for?
Synthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation
Folic acid deficiency inhibits ___________ which can lead to _______ and increase in risk of ____________
DNA synthesis; anemia; birth defects
Coblamin (B12) contains _____ in a coordination state of _
Coblamin is required for which 2 reactions?
Methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutate
Coblamin deficiency is rare but found in _________________ because it is found in ______
long-term vegetarians; meat
Vitamin C is known as ________
Vitamin C is necessary for __________ and _____________
collagen stability and reducing iron to Fe2+
Vitamin C deficiency may lead to __________ and ________
capillary fragility and scurvy
Smokers require ______ vitamin C than nonsmokers
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
What are the functions of calcium?
Makes bones, second messenger, blood coagulation and muscle contractility
Dietary sources of calcium include ______, ______, ______, ______ and _________
dairy, nuts, beans, seeds and seaweeds
What is iron used for?
O2 transport, energy metabolism, cell proliferation and immune defense
What is iodine used for?
synthesis of thyroid hormones
What is the best natural food source of iodine?
Zinc deficiency may cause poor _______, _______ and impaired ___________
wound healing, dermatitis and impaired immune function
Copper deficiency may cause ____, bone _________ and blood vessel ______
anemia, bone demineralization and blood vessel fragility
Selenium is needed for ________
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