Euro - Mao

Sun Yat-sen
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Terms in this set (33)
- Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.

- Sun yixian stepped down as president to make Yuan Shikai general, Sun hoped Yuan would restore order and create a strong central government but instead set up a new dynasty with himself as emperor. Military did not support him and opposition.
- Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.

- The last dynasty of China: (up to 1912) also called the Manchu Dynasty. (Foreigners ruling China.) Characteristics: highly corrupt, inefficient; experienced wars & rebellions (1839 on).
- Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.

- The Chinese Nationalist Party that governed China after 1928. They were the CCP's major opponent. They promoted a measure of modern development that was largely limited to the cities.
A campaign to unite China and defeat the warlords. in 6 months, the KMT and CCP defeated 34 warlords. Received food from peasants. KMT and CCP co-operated, together defeating northern warlords and imperialists. The solders on the Northern Expedition asked peasants not to pay rent / debts

- To unify China under its own control by ending the rule of the Beiyang government (Republic of China) as well as subdue the local warlords.

- The nationwide response to the may thirteenth movement of 1925 (labor and anti-imperialist movement) marked the onset of high tide for the Nationalist revolution
Began to strain the unity of the disparate groups that were working together in Canton
- Its major interest was anti-imperialist on a united, national basis rather than through class warfare → wanted an ideology of national unity which would be multiclass and both anti-imperialist and anti-communist

-Establishment of Nanjing Government
-End of the Warlord Era
-Reunification of China in 1928... But was it really unified?
JiangxiWhere Mao went to organize the peasants. - Communists gathered here to escape White Terror - CCP established a Chinese Soviet gov. here - Jiang tried 5 encirclement campaigns to wipe out communists-5th time workedZunyi- Party conference to determine the future of the party - After this, 28 Bolsheviks are out. - Mao's leadership of the party was recognized hereYan'anYan'an is the Shangxi Soviet. - refuge for the CCP after the Long March of 1934-1935. - Peasants here were won over by land distribution and rent control (no mass killings of rich peasants or landlords). Literacy was improved and there were attempts to stamp out corruption. Homes, schools, hospitals, and factories were created in cliff caves and huts. - Mass meetings were held. Also important were Mao's writings he was able to write here. This helped him impose his personal authority, as did the rectification campaigns of 1942 that removed people through confession of "Crimes." Regular self criticism was enforced, and no outside press or radio was permitted. The measures used in Yan'an and Mao's writing, as well as the safety provided there after the Long March, were instrumental for both the CCP's survival and Mao's imposition of his own will on the surviving party members. - Mao's followers built houses in caves here - Town in Shaanxi province; Mao's headquarters until 1948 - The end of the Long March in 1936 - Mao got rid of any remaining opponents in the party with Thought Reform.Long March 1934Communist escape from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China.Second United FrontThe Second United Front was the alliance between the Kuomintang (KMT) and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Second Sino-Japanese War that suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1946. Followed Xian Incident.guerrilla warfareA hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes - Rather than risk defeat by engaging superior forces in open battle, weaker military forces have frequently chosen to employ guerrilla warfare in which relatively small, irregular units, often without uniform rely on surprise and mobility to compensate for limited personnel, weapons, and supplies.positional warfareinvolves organized military units wearing uniforms using standard weapons and equipment against one another in battle. - opposing side attempts to 1. Maintain, or hold, their own positions against enemy forces; 2. Take enemy positions from enemy forces.People's Liberation ArmyChinese Communist army; administered much of country under People's Republic of China. - It is one of the largest military forces in the world. The People's Liberation Army traces its roots to the 1927 Nanchang Uprising of the communists against the Nationalists. Initially called the Red Army, it grew under Mao Zedong and Zhu De from 5,000 troops in 1929 to 200,000 in 1933. Only a fraction of this force survived the Long March in retreat from the Nationalists. After rebuilding its strength, a large portion of it, the Eighth Route Army, fought with the Nationalists against the Japanese in northern China.Lin BiaoMinister of Defense. In 1964, published "Little Red Book," with quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong. Appointed as Mao's successor, but died in a plane crash in 1971 (scholars unsure if it was an accident or planned). Lin and Mao had grown apart. Lin was accused of betraying Mao, and some claimed he had planned a coup d'etat. - Head of the PLA and designated successor to Mao Zedong; died in mysterious circumstances after a failed coup attempt in 1972.LaogaiReeducation through labour camps, they were created soon after Mao came to power. Initially, Soviet advisers set up the camps, and thus were modeled after the Gulag, prisoners were used as slave labor. On average, there were 10 million prisoners per year held in the camps under Mao and by 1976 there were more than 10,000 labor camps spread across china. Many of the worst camps were deliberately built in the most inhospitable regions. The camps helped terrify people into obedience, and also served to remove people who were against the regime. This helped the CCP, and thus Mao, consolidate his power. - 1. These were prison-work camps that were modeled after the gulags, though they were nowhere near as vicious. (2) A primary goal was 'Re-education' through labor. (3) They had horrible conditions and used confessions and night interrogations to make people believe they had actually done wrong to the state. (4) By 1976, there were 10,000 of them. (5) Their goal was not, however, to kill people (though many committed suicide). (6) They took opposition out of the public eye, made them work in a communist manner, and released them into society as people without rights and thus the ability to oppose the CCP.Landlordsthose who owned land; mostly wiped out by Mao Zedong's forcesAgrarian Reform Act(1950) the property of rural landlords was confiscated and redistributed, which fulfilled a promise to the peasants and smashed a class identified as feudal or semifeudal.Struggle MeetingsThese events were a common form of public humiliation exploited by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party to control public opinion and discourage political dissidence. They were typically carried out by a crowd of Chinese people who would verbally or physically abuse a victim until the victim confessed. This public control tactic was seen in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.Three Antis CampaignCampaign in 1951 targeting waste, corruption and inefficiency. It was carried out through mass meetings in which officials and managers were denounced, investigated and publically humiliated if found guilty. It served to stifle potential opposition as well as to stamp out many corrupt practices.Five Antis CampaignCampaign in 1952 targeting industrial sabotage, tax evasion, bribery, fraud and theft of government property. Workers organizations investigated their employers' affairs. They would then be denounced in mass meetings. They were punished with fines, confiscation of property and terms in labour camps. Very few were executed, but up to 3 million committed suicide. This campaign cowed the business class.100 Flowers Movement1956-57: Purpose was to encourage debates in fields of art, literature and science and promote progress in these fields by allowing criticism and freedom of expression, so clashing of new ideas would bring improvements that would move China forward. The party would find out from the people how it could improve. They were shocked by the volume and severity of the criticism, and decided it's not okay for people outside the party to criticize it after the fact.Rightistscritics of the CCP who were called "rightists"Anti-Rightist CampaignCampaign launched by Mao in 1957 to crack down on intellectuals who had voiced criticism during the Hundred Flowers Campaign. Perhaps as many at 500,000 intellectuals were branded "rightists" and either sent to labour camps or exiled to country villages for "reeducation". This taught the intellectuals and everyone else the dangers of criticizing Mao's policies. This is one reason why everyone went along with the disastrous Great Leap Forward in 1958.Great Leap Forward (1958)- Mao Zedong launched a program - urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output and created communes - rural communes set up "backyard" industries to produce steel - program failed b/c "backyards" produced low-quality - communes had slow food output, bad weather, and a famineCultural Revolution (China)Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.Little Red BookA book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools.Red Guardsthe Radical youth of the Cultural Revolution in China starting in 1966. Often wore red armbands and carried Mao's Little Red Book.Four OldsOld thought, culture, customs and habits were attacked by the Red Guards under Mao's instruction, in hopes to destroy anything that might have disagreed with communism. They were anything that resembled dynastic views.