Peter the Great
1697/8: Travels West. Europe & realizes how behind Russia is. Westernizes Russia (technically not ideologically)
1685-8: Last Stuart. Overthrown by William of Orange (son in law) upon birth of his (Catholic) son.
William of Orange (William III)
Joint monarch (1650-1702) with his wife Mary II. Led Dutch independence over Hapsburg (Phillip II) Spain.
"Two Treatises of Government" Human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. If Gov't failed, people had right to rebel.
r. 1711-40: Tried to keep Hapsburg Empire intact with "Pragmatic Sanction" & rule of his daughter; failed.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
1748: (truce really) Prussia gets Silesia; all other territories siezed returned to owners. Maria Theresa rules AUT. Prussia b/c a super-power.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713: Ends War of Spanish Succession (Louis XIV VS. Europe) prohibited: joining of French and Spanish crowns, French expansionist policy. Also: ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
War of Spanish Succession
1701-14: Charles II dies; heirless. Louis XIV offered the Spanish throne. Grand Alliance VS. France.
An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.
r. 1740-86: King of Prussia; Military to increase power. "Enlightened Despot" (religious reform; free speech)
1642-1727: "Principia" Discovered gravity, experimented with optics, co-invented calculus.
16-18 C. Scientific thought rules; beliefs questioned, except for equality for women
1694-1778: Wrote "Philosophic Letters on the English", "Candide" & "Treatise on Toleration". He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration.
1694-1774: Physiocrat. wrote "Economic Table". Said land = source of wealth. Laissez Faire proponent.
r. 1814-1824. Restored even before Napoleon's defeat by 4/alliance. OK's Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law) & bi-cameral system.
English Poor Law
1834: Welfare received only in "Workhouses" (miserable). Logic: poor will find legitimate work.
1805-72: Fought for unified republic. In '48 it was put down by Austrians (N) and French (S)
r. 1852-71. Napoleon's nephew. Helped Italy drive Aus. out; invaded Mex. (debt collection). Elected by populous after revoking re-election laws; dictator
Architect of Italian unification in 1858/9. Allies Italy & France; Aus. leaves N. Italy. Italy unites 99% in 1860.
1898: "Evolutionary Socialism" (as opposed to revolutionary socialism). Social Democrat and MP.
1820-1903: UK philosopher and sociologist. Applied Darwin's theories to humanity. i.e. Social Darwinism
Revolution of 1905
Strikes etc. caused by 1905 loss to Japan & hunger; Result: Duma & Russian Constitution of 1906.
Tsar Nicholas II
r. 1894-1917. Poor leader. Abdicates during Russian Revolution in 1917; executed by Lenin in 1918.
War Guilt Clause
1917: Treaty of Versailles. Formally blamed Germany; fined $33 billion. Most degrading/memorable clause.
Architect (born in Germany) and founder of the Bauhaus school (1883-1969). "Form follows function".
Feb.'45: US/UK/USSR (2 of 3) All will declare war on Japan; USSR will receive reparation for 1905 losses.
Opponents of mercantilism and Colbertism in particular. Led by Francois Quesnay. Felt the need for a strong independent republic.
The Spirit of the Laws
1748: Montesquieu - separation of powers. Contributed largely to the US Constitution.
1814: UK engineer who built 1st successful steam locomotive. 1829: First commercial trip.