1697/8: Travels West. Europe & realizes how behind Russia is. Westernizes Russia (technically not ideologically)
Golden Age of Holland
17 C. Richest nation due to trading/joint stock co's.
1685-8: Last Stuart. Overthrown by William of Orange (son in law) upon birth of his (Catholic) son.
William of Orange (William III)
Joint monarch (1650-1702) with his wife Mary II. Led Dutch independence over Hapsburg (Phillip II) Spain.
"Two Treatises of Government" Human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. If Gov't failed, people had right to rebel.
War of Austrian Succession
1740-8: Aut. disregards treaty; Invades Silesia. FR/UK join war.
r. 1711-40: Tried to keep Hapsburg Empire intact with "Pragmatic Sanction" & rule of his daughter; failed.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
1748: (truce really) Prussia gets Silesia; all other territories siezed returned to owners. Maria Theresa rules AUT. Prussia b/c a super-power.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713: Ends War of Spanish Succession (Louis XIV VS. Europe) prohibited: joining of French and Spanish crowns, French expansionist policy. Also: ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
War of Spanish Succession
1701-14: Charles II dies; heirless. Louis XIV offered the Spanish throne. Grand Alliance VS. France.
An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.
r. 1740-86: King of Prussia; Military to increase power. "Enlightened Despot" (religious reform; free speech)
1642-1727: "Principia" Discovered gravity, experimented with optics, co-invented calculus.
16-18 C. Scientific thought rules; beliefs questioned, except for equality for women
1694-1778: Wrote "Philosophic Letters on the English", "Candide" & "Treatise on Toleration". He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration.
1694-1774: Physiocrat. wrote "Economic Table". Said land = source of wealth. Laissez Faire proponent.