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Unit 4 Study Guide: Learning and Memory (Saylor Academy)
Introductory Psychology CLEP study cards
Terms in this set (44)
What field of psychology did John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Ivan Pavlov develop.
Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson developed classical conditioning.
B.F. Skinner focused on behaviors and used punishments and rewards to condition animals to engage in certain behaviors (operant conditioning).
focuses primarily on overt/observable behavior and exploring what motivates animals and humans to repeat or avoid certain behaviors.
Behavioral theories as those introduced by Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner are still widely used in clinical and educational settings, among others.
What is operant conditioning? Who founded it?
B.F. Skinner largely founded the area of operant conditioning.
In this type of conditioning, a rewarding stimulus is presented for desirable behavior whereas a punishment is presented following an undesirable behavior.
The theory suggests that reinforced or rewarded behavior is more likely to be repeated than behavior that has been punished.
What is classical conditioning? Who founded it?
Classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov in his work with dogs. John B. Watson applied the same principles to humans.
Classical conditioning examines pairing a neutral stimulus to behavior or interactions. For example, Watson paired the presentation of a neutral stimulus like a cute animal with a loud sound that would causes a fear reaction in a young child. Through numerous paired presentations, the child will eventually become afraid of a cute animal.
What is observational learning?
Albert Bandura focuses on modeling or observational learning. His most famous study focused on children watching an aggressive act on a video and then having opportunity to replicate the same behavior they watched (Bobo doll experiments).
Real-world examples of reinforcement, punishment, and shaping.
Educational settings are a prime example of the principles of behaviorism. For example, teachers may reward certain behaviors like raising hands or sitting still by rewarding children with stars or stickers.
Similarly, if children fail to follow directions, teachers may remove stickers from a reinforcement chart.
When teaching new skills such as writing neatly, teachers often utilize shaping or successive approximation. For example, a teacher might reward a student for correctly spelling the word the first time, and then only reward correctly spelled and also neatly written work the next time around.
What are the stages of memory processing?
Memory is processed in the following order:
Encoding - Storage - Retrieval
During this stage of memory processing, our brain receives or in puts new information. This process may be enhanced if there is meaning attached to new information.
In this stage of the memory process, after the information gets encoded, it moves into __________________ for retention.
Retrieval or recall
the last part of the memory system and refers to drawing on memory when we need it. It can be further differentiated between recall and recognition.
sensory memory - short-term memory - and long-term memory
Memory must pass through the following stages in order to move to storage:
accessing information without cues
identifying previously learned information via comparisons.
specific parts of the brain
Some scientists argue that _________________ _________________ ____ ______ ___________________ are involved in the memory process.
regulates and controls emotions and can thus affect how memories are stored (for example, by the stress or emotion they are associated with).
involved in retaining spatial memories and attaching meaning to memories.
cerebellum and prefrontal cortex
responsible for forming implicit memories i.e. procedural memory.
Aside from specific parts of the brain, there is also reason to suggest that _________________________ affect memory storage.
explicit/declarative and implicit/non-declarative
Long-term memory can be further divided into ____________________________________ and ______________________________ memory.
memory we personally experience; memories that we can try to recall consciously).
not part of our consciousness such as the memory that is formed during behaviors.
semantic and episodic memory
_________________________ and _____________________ memory are both components of explicit/declarative memory (memories that we can try to recall consciously).
refers to words, concepts, and facts.
refers to our previous experiences
Only __________________________________________ can be recalled at a later point in time.
What is the difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia?
Patients with retrograde amnesia can't recall events or information prior to a memory-related injury.
Patients diagnosed with anterograde amnesia cannot remember new information.
Common memory problems that occur in forensic/criminal matters.
false memories, eyewitness misidentification, and the misinformation effect.
amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex
The various parts of the brain that have been thought to affect memory; they work together to form, store, and retrieve information.
memories for events that never happened, but were suggested by someone or something
The single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide
the misinformation effect
when misleading information has corrupted one's memory of an event
Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
a process in which you attribute meaning of new information to already stored information.
techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve information
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits; "know how"
loss of memory
an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows
the development of biased memories from misleading information
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