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Unit 5 Study Guide: Development (Saylor Academy)
Introductory Psychology CLEP study cards
Terms in this set (72)
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
the stage of development that begins around 18 to 21 years and ends at death
the stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 months and lasts until adolescence
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory
the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death
a developmental process that refers to the way people relate to others around them
process proposed by Freud in which pleasure-seeking urges focus on different erogenous zones of the body as humans move through five stages of life
growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically
the steps that a pregnant female can take to provide for her own health and the health of her baby
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Unborn baby; usually around 8 weeks from conception
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
neurologically based disorders that are revealed in a clinically significant way during a child's developing years
What does Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development suggest?
controversial theory that focuses on sexual pleasure during childhood. This theory claims that personality is determined at an early age. His theory is based on pleasure-seeking behaviors and characterized by 5 stages of development
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
The 5 stages of psychosexual development
What are the stages of Jean Piaget's theory?
focused on children's cognitive development. Piaget was particularly curious to understand how children develop logic and learn how to apply logical operations.
In this model, he differentiates between four stages of development.
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
Jean Piaget's four stages of child development.
A neo-Freudian psychologist that hypothesized that people face pass through 8 social development stages from infancy to old age. Each challenge has an outcome that affects a persons social and personality development.
Erickson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
initiative vs guilt
industry vs inferiority
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
integrity vs despair
Harry Harlow, John Bowlby, and Mary Ainsworth
studied attachments, the bonds and relationships between children and their primary caregivers.
The relationships we have w/ family and friends are a foundation of childhood and affect child and human development.
worked with monkeys to understand the infant/mother bond. Found that there is more to the bond between mother and child than nourishment.
developed a more formalized attachment theory and differentiated between secure, avoidant, resistant, and disorganized attachments.
attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy; a secure child has a parent that is responsive to his needs and both engage in mutually enjoyable interactions.
attachments marked by discomfort over, or resistance to, being close to others
relationship in which, after a brief separation, infants want to be held but are difficult to console
a type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return
studied the separation between infants/toddlers and their mothers and concluded there were three types of attachments: secure, avoidant, and resistant. Similar to Bowlby's work.
Found that secure attachments are characterized by responsive and attentive parents.
stages of psychosexual development (Freud)
According to Freud, children's pleasure-seeking urges are focused on a different area of the body, called an erogenous zone, at each of the five stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
psychosocial stages of development (Erikson)
emphasized the social nature of our development rather than its sexual nature. Proposed that personality development takes place all through the lifespan.
Suggested that how we interact with others is what affects our sense of self, or what was called the ego identity.
8 stages of development over our lifespan, from infancy through late adulthood: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, integrity vs. despair.
Stage 1 (0-1 years), Trust vs. Mistrust
Trust that basic needs, such as nourishment and affection, will be met.
Stage 2 (1-3 years), Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
Develop a sense of independence in many tasks.
Stage 3 (3-6 years), Initiative vs. Guilt
Take initiative on some activities - may develop guilt when unsuccessful or boundaries are overstepped.
Stage 4 (7-11 years), Industry vs. Inferiority
Develop self-confidence in abilities when competent or sense of inferiority when not.
Stage 5 (12-18 years), Identity vs. Confusion
Experiment with and develop identity and roles.
Stage 6 (19-29 years), Intimacy vs. Isolation
Experiment with and develop identity roles.
Stage 7 (30-64 years), Generativity vs. Stagnation
Contribute to society and be part of a family.
Stage 8 (65+), Integrity vs. Despair
Assesses and makes sense of life and meaning of contributions.
cognitive stages of development (Piaget)
focused on children's cognitive growth; thinking is a central aspect of development and that children are naturally inquisitive, but children do not think and reason like adult: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, formal operational stage.
World experienced through senses and actions.
Developmental issues: object permanence and stranger anxiety.
Children learn about the world through their senses and motor behavior.
Use words and images to represent things, but lack logical reasoning.
Developmental issues: pretend play, egocentrism, language development
Children can use symbols to represent words, images, and ideas, which is why children in this stage engage in pretend play.
(7-11) Concrete Operational
Understand concrete events and analogies logically; perform arithmetical operations.
Developmental issues: conservation, mathematical transformations.
Children can think logically about real (concrete) events; they have a firm grasp on the use of numbers and star to employ memory strategies. They can perform mathematical operations and understand transformations, such as addition is the opposite of subtraction, and multiplication is the opposite of division.
Children also master the concept of conservation in this stage.
(12+), Formal Operational
Formal operations, utilize abstract reasoning.
Developmental issues: abstract logic, moral reasoning.
Children in this stage can use abstract thinking to problem solve, look at alternative solutions, and test these solutions. A renewed egocentrism returns in adolescence..
the understanding that even if something is out of sigh, it still exists.
concepts (mental models) that are used to help us categorize and interpret information.
when one takes in information that is comparable to what they already know.
describes when on changes his/her schemata based on new information; process continues as children interact with their environment.
the idea that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size as long as nothing has been removed or added.
means that the child is not able to take the perspective of others; a child at this stage things that everyone sees, thinks, and feels just as they do.
principle of reversibility
means that the object can be changed and then returned back to their original form or condition.
theory of moral development (Kohlberg)
moral development, like cognitive development, follows a series of stages: stages of moral reasoning.
stages of moral reasoning
Level 1: Pre-conventional morality:
Stage 1: Obedience and punishment: behavior driven by avoiding punishment.
Stage 2: Individual interest: behavior driven by self-interest and rewards.
Level 2: Conventional morality:
Stage 3: Interpersonal: behavior driven by social approval.
Stage 4: Authority: behavior driven by obeying authority and conforming to social order.
Level 3: Post-conventional morality:
Stage 5: Social contract: behavior driven by balance of social order and individual rights.
Stage 6: Universal ethics: behavior driven by internal moral principles.
Level 1: Preconventional morality
consists of Stage 1: Obedience and punishment and Stage 2: Individual interest.
Level 2: Conventional morality
consists of Stage 3: Interpersonal and Stage 4: Authority
Level 3: Post-conventional morality
consists of Stage 5: Social contract and Stage 6: Universal ethics
Stage 1 of moral development
Obedience and punishment: behavior driven by avoiding punishment.
Stage 2 of moral development
Individual interest: behavior driven by self-interest and rewards.
Stage 3 of moral development
Interpersonal: behavior driven by social approval
Stage 4 of moral development:
Authority: behavior driven by obeying authority and conforming to social order.
Stage 5 of moral development
Social contract: behavior driven by balance of social order and individual rights.
Stage 6 of moral development
Universal ethics: behavior driven by internal moral principles.
What are some differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson's developmental theories?
Freud was concerned with childhood development, whereas Erikson focused on people's entire lifespan. Freud's model was very deterministic, and viewed childhood as the time when a person's personality was determined. Erikson provided more autonomy to the individual by suggesting that each person struggles with a different conflict at various stages in their life, and that personality is dependent on the resolution of conflicts. Both theorists offer stages of human development.
What are some differences between Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg's theories?
Jean Piaget was concerned with children's cognitive development and trying to understand how the perceive and make sense of the world. Lawrence Kohlberg, on the other hand, was concerned with children's moral development. Piaget developed his work based on observable interactions with children whereas Kohlberg had to rely on hypothesized situations.
What are some physical developmental milestones young children should hit? For example, at which age should children be able to name familiar things?
Children experience rapid physical development from birth until early childhood. Children grow in height and weight, and their brains develop just as quickly. As children develop their fine and motor skills, there are a number of milestones parents can look for.
Children should be able to kick a ball and communicate in simple sentences by age 2.
Children around age 3 are expected to climb stairs and pedal a tricycle. 4-year olds should be able to catch a ball and remember songs and rhymes. 5 year olds should be able to use a fork and a spoon.
What are some major features of social and physical development for adolescents?
Adolescence is a socially-constructed stage of development during which young people form their own identities and slowly retreat from parental oversight.
Puberty is usually the onset of this stage. Adolescents' sexual and reproductive systems mature, and their brains continue to grow.
Boys and girls also grow rapidly in height during this stage and the frontal lobe of the brain continues to develop.
What are the stages of adulthood?
Adulthood is divided into 3 stages: early (roughly age 20-40), middle (40-60), and late (60 and older). Once we reach early adulthood, our physical development is complete. Our physical abilities reach their peak during the early part of this stage. Physical decline begins during middle adulthood. You may see your first wrinkles, and vision may begin to decline. Late adulthood is characterized by more decline, such as increased skin elasticity, weight gain, and problems with sensory stimulation. the brain may also slow down during this stage, leading to common problems such as memory loss and dementia.
What are some common symptoms of children experiencing ADHD?
According to the APA, children with ADHD show a constant pattern of inattention and/or hyperactive and impulsive behavior that interferes with normal functioning. For example, they might be disruptive at school, unable to sit still or follow directions, and are greatly disorganized in their everyday life.
What is autism? What is the relationship between childhood vaccinations and autism?
Children with autism disorder show signs of significant disturbances in three main areas: deficits in social interaction, deficits in communication, and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests.
There is no scientific evidence to suggest that vaccinations cause or are related to the onset of autism.
What are the stages of prenatal development?
The first two weeks of pregnancy are called the germinal stage of development, during which the child's DNA is created. Cells rapidly multiply.
The embryonic stage lasts until week 8 of pregnancy. During this stage, the embryo is formed and a placenta develops.
The last stage of prenatal development, the fetal stage, lasts from weeks 9 through birth (week 40). Sex organs begin to develop during the early part of this stage, and the body parts and internal organs develop later.
Which harmful agents can affect prenatal development?
alcohol, nicotine, and illegal substances. These are teratogens that have been linked to negative effects on a developing fetus. For example, children of mothers who consumed a lot of alcohol during pregnancy may develop mental retardation and demonstrate changed facial features, such as smaller head and eye sizes.
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