List the 5 functions (of spine and ribs) as given by McKinley and O'Loughlin
vertical support for body,
maintain upright position,
helping to transfer axial skeletal weight to lower limbs,
Housing and protection of spinal cord and nerves
From superior to inferior list the 5 regions and note how many vertebrae are in each
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacrum, 4 fused coccyx
From superior to inferior list the 4 curvatures of the spine as seen in a lateral view.
What curves develop in the womb? Give the collective and individual names
Primary curves- Thoracic & Sacral Curves
What curves develop after birth? Give the collective and individual names
Secondary curves- Cervical & Lumbar Curves
(Help child walk upright)
What is the anterior, cylindrical weight-bearing portion of a vertebra?
Body or centrum (plural- centra)
(weight baring portion)
What 2 lateral structures of a vertebra form the pillars of the passageway for the spinal cord?
Together the posteriorly projecting pillars and the extensions to the midline form what structure?
Together the posteriorly projecting pillars and extentions to the midline form what passageway within vertebra?
Adjacent vertebrae form what passageway for the spinal nerves?
(each individual is an intervertebral foramen)
What processes of a vertebra form synovial joints with the vertebrae immediately superior and inferior it?
Superior & Inferior Articular Processes
What openings in the cervical vertebrae allow the passage of the vertebral arteries and veins?
(Allows passage of vertebral artery)
What is a distinguishing characteristic of many of the thoracic vertebrae?
They articulate with the ribs
They have costal facets for rib articulations
Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from all other vertebrae by what features?
Costal facets, costal demifacets
What direction are the articular surfaces of the thoracic vertebrae oriented? How does this affect their movement?
The superior surface is oriented posteriorly.
The inferior surface is oriented anteriorly
-Movement = Along coronal plane
What is characteristic of the spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae?
They are thick and project dorsally (towards the back)
What direction are the articular surfaces of the lumbar vertebrae oriented? How does this affect their movement?
Medially and laterally
(Lets us flex in saggital plane)
What is the anatomical term for the anterior, superior bulge of the sacrum?
(Bears a lot of weight)
What paired openings occur on the anterior surface of the sacrum?
Anterior sacral foramina
What lateral structures of the sacrum articulate with the ossa coxae?
What palpable feature lies at the articulation of the manubrium and the body of the sternum?
What ribs have their costal cartilages directly articulated with the sternum? What are their numbers?
1-7, true ribs
(articulates directly with sternum)
What ribs do not have their costal cartilages directly articulated with the sternum? What are their numbers?
8-12, false ribs
What type of rib has no connection with the sternum? What are their numbers?
11-12, floating ribs
(no connection at all to sternum - also false ribs)
Ribs project posterolaterally from the vertebral column. What is the region of a rib where it changes direction and begins curving toward the sternum?
Angle of the rib