Chapter 12 - Spine & Ribs
How many bones make up the vertebral column?
How many true (moveable) vertebrae are there?
How many total vertebrae are there?
List the 5 functions (of spine and ribs) as given by McKinley and O'Loughlin
vertical support for body,
maintain upright position,
helping to transfer axial skeletal weight to lower limbs,
Housing and protection of spinal cord and nerves
How many regions are there in the vertebral column?
From superior to inferior list the 5 regions and note how many vertebrae are in each
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacrum, 4 fused coccyx
From superior to inferior list the 4 curvatures of the spine as seen in a lateral view.
What curves develop in the womb? Give the collective and individual names
Primary curves- Thoracic & Sacral Curves
What curves develop after birth? Give the collective and individual names
Secondary curves- Cervical & Lumbar Curves
(Help child walk upright)
What is the anterior, cylindrical weight-bearing portion of a vertebra?
Body or centrum (plural- centra)
(weight baring portion)
What 2 lateral structures of a vertebra form the pillars of the passageway for the spinal cord?
On a vertebra what structures extend from the lateral pillars to the midline?
Together the posteriorly projecting pillars and the extensions to the midline form what structure?
Together the posteriorly projecting pillars and extentions to the midline form what passageway within vertebra?
The vertebrae form what collective passageway for the spinal cord?
Adjacent vertebrae form what passageway for the spinal nerves?
(each individual is an intervertebral foramen)
What posteriorly projecting structures of the vertebrae can be palpated?
What lateral projections occur on each vertebra?
Inferior Articular Processes
What processes of a vertebra form synovial joints with the vertebrae immediately superior and inferior it?
Superior & Inferior Articular Processes
What smooth, flat (or nearly flat) articular surfaces occur on a vertebra?
What are the pads of fibrocartilage between vertebrae?
What is the outer ring of fibrocartilage within an intervetebral disc?
What is the inner circular region of an intervertebral disc?
What is the relative size of the cervical vertebrae?
Smaller than the rest.
What is the shape of the spinous process of C1-C6?
What openings in the cervical vertebrae allow the passage of the vertebral arteries and veins?
(Allows passage of vertebral artery)
What is another anatomical term for C1?
(First cervical vertebrae)
What structures does C1 lack?
Lacks body and spinous processes
What is another anatomical term for C2? What structures does C2 lack?
During the development the body of C1 fuses to C2 to form what structure?
Dens or Odontoid Process
What is another anatomical term for the spinous process of C7?
What is the general shape of the bodies of T1-T12?
Heart shaped body, large
What is a distinguishing characteristic of many of the thoracic vertebrae?
They articulate with the ribs
They have costal facets for rib articulations
Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from all other vertebrae by what features?
Costal facets, costal demifacets
What direction are the articular surfaces of the thoracic vertebrae oriented? How does this affect their movement?
The superior surface is oriented posteriorly.
The inferior surface is oriented anteriorly
-Movement = Along coronal plane
What is the general shape of the bodies of lumbar vertebrae?
Large, round, oval
What is characteristic of the spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae?
They are thick and project dorsally (towards the back)
What direction are the articular surfaces of the lumbar vertebrae oriented? How does this affect their movement?
Medially and laterally
(Lets us flex in saggital plane)
What is the anatomical term for the anterior, superior bulge of the sacrum?
(Bears a lot of weight)
What paired openings occur on the anterior surface of the sacrum?
Anterior sacral foramina
The spinous processes of the sacrum form what structure?
Median sacral crest
What are the paired openings on the posterior side of the sacrum?
Posterior sacral foramina
What lateral structures of the sacrum articulate with the ossa coxae?
What is the anatomical term for the tailbone?
What structures make up the thoracic cage?
Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum
What is the anatomical term for the breastbone?
What are the 3 main parts of the sternum?
Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process
What are the depressions on the sternum for the articulation of the clavicles?
What is the shallow, superior depression on the sternum?
What depressions on the sternum do the ribs articulate with?
What palpable feature lies at the articulation of the manubrium and the body of the sternum?
How many ribs are there?
12 pairs of ribs
What ribs have their costal cartilages directly articulated with the sternum? What are their numbers?
1-7, true ribs
(articulates directly with sternum)
What ribs do not have their costal cartilages directly articulated with the sternum? What are their numbers?
8-12, false ribs
What type of rib has no connection with the sternum? What are their numbers?
11-12, floating ribs
(no connection at all to sternum - also false ribs)
What part of a rib articulates with the body (bodies) of a vertebra(e)?
What part of a rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebrae?
What part of a rib lies between the head and tubercle?
Ribs project posterolaterally from the vertebral column. What is the region of a rib where it changes direction and begins curving toward the sternum?
Angle of the rib
What is the main part of a rib?
Shaft of the rib
What feature on the inferior side of a rib marks the path of an artery, a vein, and a nerve?
(Blood vessels and nerves travel here)