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DNA, RNA, Proteins synthesis Homework #1: The basic of DNA
Terms in this set (30)
2 rings in structure (adenine and guanine)
1 ring in structure (thymine and cytosine)
5 carbon sugar in DNA
What does DNA stand for?
The two sides of the DNA molecule are held together across the center of the helix by what type of bond?
If the nucleotide sequence on one side of the DNA molecule is GTCATG, what would be the sequence of bases complimentary to this?
Name the four nitrogen bases found in DNA.
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine
What two men together discovered the structure of the DNA molecule?
James Watson and Francis crick
This person's x-ray crystallography photographs provided the vital clues in solving the structure of DNA.
What are the sides of DNA ladder made of?
sugar and phosphate
What are the rungs of the DNA ladder made of?
What is the name of the small repeating subunits that compose DNA and RNA?
Why did Watson and Crick refer to the DNA molecule as a "Double Helix"
Double refers to the fact that the molecule is doubled stranded or is composed of two sides. Helix refers to the spiraling nature of the molecule; the two sides are twisted around one another.
Using letter to symbolize the nitrogen bases, indicate which bases always pair together. How many bonds hold each pair?
Adenine bonds with thymine; two hydrogen bonds are formed between them
Guanine bonds with cytosine; 3 hydrogen bonds form between them.
What is the name of the structure seen to the right? Label 3 parts composing this structure. How are the three parts held together?
This is a drawing of a single nucleotide. The PO4 in the yellow circle is phosphate group.The green, 5-sided shape is sugar, deoxyribose. The orange, 6-sided shape is a nitrogen base. The sugar is held to the nitrogen base on one side and tot eh phosphate group on the other side by covalent bonds.
If 20% of the nucleotide in a DNA molecule are adenine, what percentage of each of the other three bases would be found in this molecule. This is known as _______ rule.
30%=C,30%=G , 20%=T; chargaff's rules
alternating sugar and phosphate molecules form the sides or "backbone" of the DNA molecule. Why are the alternatives sugars and phosphates referred to as a "backbone "?
A sugar phosphate backbone joins together nucleotides in a DNA sequence. The backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups.
The chromosomes that are found in prokaryotes are different from those found in Eukaryotes. Which of the following describes prokaryotic DNA?
It is a Single, circular chromosome
What is the function of DNA in Cells
It stores the information that directs the ribosome in protein synthesis.
Which of the following would not be found in a nucleotide?
Which of the following doesn't describe the structure of DNA?
It contains the 5-carbon sugar, ribose
A double helix is shaped like a straight,untwisted ladder
There are five nitrogen bases
There are five nitrogen bases in the DNA molecule
Across the center of the DNA helix a purine must always be found in DNA and the sugar found in RNA. (TRUE OR FALSE)
There is no difference between the sugar found in DNA and sugar found in RNA.
Phosphates are bonded to sugars and sugars are bonded to nitrogen bases with covalent
Nitrogen bases are bonded together across the center of the helix with hydrogen bonds
Adenine always bonds to thymine, but occasionally it can also bond to cytosine
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