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Anatomy and Physiology FINAL
Terms in this set (59)
Identify the ways in which the anterior pituitary differs from the posterior pituitary. Check all that apply.
The anterior pituitary is also known as the adenohypophysis.
The posterior pituitary secretes gonadotropins.
The anterior pituitary is stimulated by the hypothalamus via hormones that travel through the hypophyseal portal system.
Indicate whether each condition describes hormonal up regulation or down regulation.
Please rank the following hormone pathway components in order starting from the hypothalamus:
Anterior Pituitary gland 2
Gonads (testes) 4
Classify the following as characteristics of the endocrine system or nervous system.
1. The control for the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary resides in
2. The growth hormone level rose so much and caused a markedly accelerated growth in Adam because
3. Prior to ablation of the tumor, you would expect Adam's level of growth hormone releasing factor to have been
1. the hypothalamus, which discharges the releasing factor for growth hormone into the capillary plexus that flows through the anterior pituitary.
2. Adam had an autonomously functioning, growth hormone secreting tumor of the anterior pituitary.
3. undetectable in the blood sample because the high levels of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary tumor would have suppressed any release of growth hormone releasing factor from the hypothalamus.
1. It was possible to ablate (destroy) Adam's pituitary tumor using gamma rays without damaging surrounding structures since
2. David observed that Adam had no lateral vision. How could this be related to growth hormone?
1. by focusing the gamma rays from various angles and points of entry, only the tissue at the point of focus was destroyed.
2. It is not directly related to growth hormone, rather the mass of the tumor compressed the optic chiasm.
You may have noticed that after a large meal you have had some difficulty breathing. Which explanation is most accurate with regard to this situation?
A full stomach impedes contraction of the diaphragm, limiting inhalation.
Identify the proper region for each pressure label.
Identify each of the cell types listed that are associated with the alveoli of the lungs.
1. Oxygen molecules bind ___________________ of the hemoglobin.
2. A single hemoglobin displaying a saturation level of 75% would be bound to ___________________________
1. specifically to the heme region
2. 3 oxygen molecules
Identify each of the heart valves.
Identify each component of the electrical conduction system of the heart.
1. The AV valves close in response to the ________________________.
2. Action potentials received directly from ________________ stimulate the papillary muscles to contract, allowing for the proper _______________ of the AV valves.
3. Mitral valve prolapse severe enough to cause regurgitation may directly cause _________________ pressure in the ____________ atrium.
1. contraction of the ventricles and the resulting rise in ventricular pressure
2. Purkinje fibers; closing
3. increased; left
Identify the specific region on the graph associated with each phase of the cardiac cycle listed.
1. The semilunar valves remain open throughout the ____________________ phase of the cardiac cycle.
2. The atria remain in diastole throughout both the _______________________ phases of the cardiac cycle.
1. late ventricular systole
2. ventricular systole and ventricular diastole
1. Positive inotropes allow the heart to pump ____________ blood with fewer heart beats. They do this by _____________________ the end-systolic volume (ESV).
2. An individual with high blood pressure (hypertension) is expected to benefit from the administration of ____________________ inotropic drugs that _______________ the hearts workload.
3. The expected effect of the drug Digoxin is to _________________ ventricular contraction and _________________ stroke volume.
1. more; decreasing
2. negative; decrease
3. strengthen; increase
Place each label representing a specific electrical event on the appropriate region of the ECG.
Which region of the ECG image aligns with the electrical changes related to atrial repolarization?
1. A first degree block is caused by ________________.
2. The rate of ventricular conduction is best determined by _______________________ on an ECG.
3. An ECG tracing from someone with a third-degree AV block is best described as a tracing with ______________________.
1. delay of the action potential between the SA and AV nodes
2. the number of QRS complexes present within a specific unit of time
3. atrial depolarization occurring 70-100 times per minute and ventricular depolarization occurring 40-50 times per minute
The surface of red blood cells and a person with type B blood has
The plasma of a person with type A blood has:
If the blood from an individual with type AB blood is mixed with anti-A serum in one well and anti-B serum in a second separate well
the anti-A serum well and the anti-B serum well will show agglutination.
Which of the following statements is correct about people with blood type A?
In glycolysis, glucose is converted to
The NET result of a single glycolysis run is the formation of
2 NADH and 2 ATP.
Under anaerobic conditions, the end-product of glycolysis is converted to
During glycolysis, a 6-carbon sugar diphosphate molecule is split into two 3-carbon sugar phosphate molecules.
Under aerobic conditions, the end-product of glycolysis is further reduced to yield more ATP.
Energy used to synthesize ATP from ADP and phosphate comes from protons...
Moving down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase
Oxidative phosphorylation is a term used to describe...
The production of ATP by the electron transport chain
The electrons from NADH are transferred to...
Which organelles use a proton gradient to produce ATP?
During electron transport, protons are transferred to the...
Intermembrane space of a mitochondrion
Indicate whether each of the following would increase or decrease filtration.
Place each of the labels in the proper position to denote whether they would pass through the filtration membrane or not.
Will Pass Through - sodium, glucose, water, urea and thyroid hormone (TH)
Will not pass through - Red blood cells, albumin, platelets, TH bound to plasma protein, lymphocytes
Complete each statement by using the appropriate word or phrase from the list.
Negatively charged proteoglycans found in the basement membrane prevent most proteins in the blood from exiting the glomerular capillaries.
Filtration slits are formed by podocytes.
Small openings in the capillary endothelium called fenestrations are too small to allow cells to leave the glomerulus.
The volume of blood that enters the afferent arteriole is not equal to the volume of blood that travels through the efferent arteriole due to the process termed glomerular filtration.
A kidney infection or injury that results in damage to the filtration membrane may result in proteinuria (protein in the urine).
Indicate whether each of the following would increase or decrease urine volume.
Indicate whether the provided renal function results from the creation of urine or through other mechanisms.
Directly Resulting From Urine Formation - filtration of blood, removal of nitrogenous waste, reduction of blood acidity, electrolyte regulation, blood pressure regulation and blood volume regulation.
Not Directly Resulting From Urine Formation - Calcitriol (vitamin D) conversion, erythropoiesis stimulation
1. Filtration is a ________________ process that depends on a ___________________ gradient.
2. When systemic blood pressure decreases, the result is that the ___________ arterioles change diameter by undergoing ______________.
1. passive; pressure
2. afferent; vasodilation
Identify each region of the nephron.
Indicate the pathway of urine formation to urine output by placing each of the structures in the correct sequential order from left to right.
nephron, collecting tubule, collecting duct, papillary duct, minor calyax, major calyax, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra
Classify each of the statements below as pertaining to viscosity or osmolarity.
Indicate whether the abundance of the given cell type would increase, decrease, or not be affected by the given situation.
INCREASE:1) Erythrocytes: high altitude2) Erythrocytes: long term hypoxia3) Neutrophils: streptococcus infection4) B lymphocytes: influenza infection5) Basophils: chronic asthma6) Eosinophils: tapeworm infection
RELATIVELY NO CHANGE:1) Erythrocytes: acute viral infection
DECREASE:1) Erythrocytes: dietary iron deficiency2) Erythrocytes: erythropoietin hyposecretion3) Erythrocytes: declining intrinsic factor4) Erythrocytes: acute, profuse hemorrhage5) Erythrocytes: malarial parasitic infection6) Erythrocytes: radiation therapy
Indicate whether the given transfusion is compatible or not compatible.
COMPATIBLE:1) O- given to A+2) B- given to AB+3) O- given to O+
NOT COMPATIBLE:1) A+ given to O-2) AB- given to A+3) AB+ given to O-4) O+ given to AB-5) AB- given to O+6) AB- given to B-7) B+ given to A+8) A+ given to AB-
Drag each of the labels into the appropriate position to indicate which blood type is being described.
TYPE AB+:1) Expresses all of the major antigens2) The least common U.S. blood type3) Expresses the D antigen4) The universal acceptor5) Expresses the Rh factor6) Expresses the A agglutinogen
Type O-:1) Expresses all of the major antibodies2) The most common U.S. blood type3) The universal donor4) Expresses the B agglutinin
Complete each statement below and then place them in the proper order to correctly describe the concept of a negative feedback mechanism.
1. Situation: During a hot day, water lost through sweat produces a condition of decreasing blood (fluid) volume.
2. Trend : Blood (fluid) volume decreases; can also be stated as increasing the osmolarity (or concentration of solutes) of blood.
3. Detection: Increasing osmolarity of the blood is detected by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus.
4. Response : The sense of thirst is enhanced partially as a result of antidiuretic hormone.
5. Effect: Drinking of fluids reverses the declining water volume.
Drag each label into the appropriate position to identify whether the characteristic is indicative of arteries or veins.
Drag each label into the appropriate position to identify whether the characteristic is indicative of arteries or veins.
Indicate whether the given condition would increase or decrease blood flow with all other factors being equal.
Complete each sentence by dragging the proper label into the appropriate position, then rearrange the sentences into a sequence that indicates decreasing pressures, beginning with the highest (in mmHg).
1. The highest pressure exerted on the arterial walls during the heart cycle is referred to as systolic blood pressure .
2. Dividing by three the difference between the highest and lowest pressures measured on the arterial walls during the heart cycle is mean arterial pressure and reflects an overall value of stress on the vasculature.
3. The diastolic blood pressure is measured when the heart is relaxing and represents the lowest pressure exerted in the walls of the arteries during the heart cycle.
4. Subtracting the SBP from the DBP results in pulse pressure which is directly proportional to the overall strength of one's pulse.
Complete each sentence by dragging the proper label into the appropriate position.
Regulation of blood flow to the tissues of the skin affects the activity of sweat glands of the integumentary system.
Vasculature located throughout the body serves to deliver minerals needed for the formation of skeletal system structures.
High rates of activity of the muscular system produce large quantities of heat which can be absorbed into the blood stream and transported to the skin where it will be released to the environment in the form of sweat.
Regulation of vessel diameter, blood volume, and heart function demonstrate nervous system action on cardiovascular function.
As a form of communication, the endocrine system requires secreted chemicals to be transported throughout the body by the cardiovascular system.
White blood cells and agglutinins of the lymphatic system are readily transported to areas of localized trauma through the vasculature.
The respiratory system relies on the cardiovascular system for transportation of all gaseous elements throughout the body.
Blood carrying nitrogenous, and other waste products, to the kidneys for excretion is an example of urinary system reliance on the cardiovascular system.
Blood flowing through the hepatic portal vein is an example of digestive system function where nutrients, that are absorbed from the GI tract, are filtered and processed by the liver prior to entering the general circulation.
Regulation of the reproductive system relies on the transportation of FSH, LH, OT, and PRL throughout the body.
Complete each sentence by dragging the proper label into the appropriate position, then rearrange the sentences into a sequence identifying a continuum of decreasing pressures beginning with the vessel that encounters the greatest pressure.
1. The aorta is the first vessel blood enters upon exiting the heart.
2. The large (elastic) arteries expand and recoil with every heart beat due to a histologically dominant network of elastic tissue in the tunica media.
3. Just prior to entering capillary beds, arterioles have become extremely thin and present only a few layers of smooth muscle.
4. The site of gaseous exchange, or capillaries ,are characterized by extremely thin walls with only endothelium and basal lamina which better suits diffusional requirements.
5. After exiting the capillary, venules contain no muscle and are the first vessel that blood enters on its way back to the heart.
6. The medium veins contain abundant but irregularly spaced smooth muscle with frequent valves present in the tunica interna.
7. The vena cavae is example of a large vein that includes smooth muscle circularly and longitudinally arranged in the tunica media and external respectively.
Which of these events lead to increased airflow and which lead to decreased airflow?
Identify in which set of capillaries each of the following processes would occur.
Place the following occurrences in order to describe the regulation of rehydration beginning with someone who is dehydrated.
Drag each label to the location of each structure described.
Indicate the heart chamber responsible for the given function.
Complete each sentence by dragging the labels to the appropriate blanks. Then place each sentence in a logical order beginning with the SA node in a resting state.
Complete each sentence by dragging the labels to the appropriate blanks. Then place each sentence in a logical order beginning with myocytes in a resting state.
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