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Vascular Anatomy & Procedures
Terms in this set (62)
What are the layers of an artery from internal to external?
-Lumen of vessel
-Tunica interna or intima (endothelium, subendothelium, internal elastic lamina)
-Tunica media (smmoth muscle, external elastic lamina)
-Tunica externa or adventitia
What does the venous tunica adventitia consist of?
Thin layer of fibrous connective tissue
What is the venous tunica media made of?
Thin layer of smooth muscle
What is the venous tunica intima made of?
Which venous layer constricts extensively in cases of severe hemorrhage?
Which arterial layer consists of very strong fibrous connective tissue?
Tunica adventia - arterial
What prevents rupture or bursting when carrying blood under high pressure?
Tunica adventitia - arterial
Which arterial layer is made up of smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue, while helping to maintain normal BP?
Tunica media - arterial
Which arterial layer has a nerve supply (with increased sympathetic nerve impulse brings about vasoconstriction, decreased impulses vasodilation)?
Tunica mediaa - arterial
Which arterial layer is the only part of a vessel in contact with blood, made up of endothelium?
Tunica intima - arterial
What are the three types of aneurysms?
Saccular, fusiform, pseudoaneurysm
When do true aneurysms occur?
Weakening of all three layers of the arterial wall
What is another name for saccular aneurysms?
Which sides of the artery are widened in a fusiform aneurysm?
Which aneurysm occurs with a breach in the vessel wall leaks through the wall, but is contained by the adventitia or peri vascular soft tissue?
What is the abnormal, usually abrupt, formation of a tear along the inside wall of an artery?
When dissection occurs a small pouch if formed, doctors call this what?
What are the three major branches of the aortic arch?
Brachiocephalic (innominate), left common carotid, and left subclavian
What is the largest artery in the body?
Where does the aorta arise?
Does the aorta carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
What are the four parts of the aorta?
1. Ascending aorta
2. Arch of aorta
3. Descending thoracic aorta
4. Descending abdominal aorta
What is the third most common cause of death in the USA?
What is the common cause of stroke?
What are the major arteries in the neck?
Where does the carotid artery bifurcate?
What are the 2 divisions that the common carotid artery?
External and internal
Which artery supplies blood to the face and neck?
External carotid artery
Which artery supplies 80% of the blood flow to the brain?
Internal carotid artery
Which artery supplies 20% of the blood flow to the brain?
What are the two divisions of the external carotid artery?
Superficial temporal and maxillary artery
What does the external carotid artery and its branches supply?
Scalp, face, maxilla, tongue
Does the internal carotid artery have branches to the neck?
Where does the internal carotid artery enter?
Where does the internal carotid artery arise?
Level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage
What is the internal carotid artery embedded with?
In the carotid sheath with the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve
What does the internal carotid artery supply?
Brain, nose, scalp, and eye
When is a carotid endarterectomy indicated?
Symptomatic patients with <50% stenosis and asymptomatic patients with <70% stenosis
What is a heparin antagonist?
What is protamine sulfate made from?
Salmon sperm and other fish species
What are the three circulatory processes occurring in the body simultaneously?
Systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, coronary circulation
What is the circuit of vessels supplying oxygenated blood to and returning deoxygenated blood from the tissues of the body?
What transports oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, where blood picks up a new blood supply, then returns the oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium?
When the heart is highly metabolically active and has the highest oxygen consumption by mass of any organ, the demand of oxygen is met by what circulation?
How many stages does it take for the heart to contract?
What is the first stage of heart contraction?
Early diastole, heart is relaxed
What is the second stage of heart contraction?
Atrium contracts, atrial systole to push blood into the ventricle
What is the third stage of heart contraction?
Ventricles start contracting without changing volume
What is the fourth stage of heart contraction?
Ventricles continue contracting while staying empty
What is the fifth stage of heart contraction?
Ventricles stop contracting and relax
What receives deoxygenated blood via the superior and inferior vena cava?
Where does the blood go after the right atrium?
What is the valve connecting the right atrium and ventricle?
Where does the blood get pumped after the right ventricle?
What arteries take deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs?
Where does the blood pick up oxygen?
The right ventricle is not strong enough to send the oxygenated blood into the body, so where does it return?
From the lungs, oxygenated blood travels where?
What valve does the oxygenated blood go through to reach the left ventricle?
Which ventricle is thicker because of the additional force needed to pump blood through the aorta into the body?
Which artery does not have any branches in the neck?
What percentage of blood supply to the brain is provided by the common carotid artery?
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