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Terms in this set (50)

Objective: is to challenge the harm issue by demonstrating that the affirmative has mot provided the existence of a harm, by providing that there is no harm, by minimizing the harm, or by arguing that the harm is in fact, a benefit.
1. No Harm: rare circumstances, negative may be able to argue successfully that there is no harm to the conditions identified by the affirmative.
2. Harm Not Significant: Negative objective in attacking significance is to prove that the harms or advantages of the affirmative (which weighed against the disadvantages of plan adoption and the advantages of a counter-plan or mediated status quo) are not sufficiently significant to warrant adopting the resolution. Similar to no harm but measure of importance of the harm is in question, the significance of the har is the appropriate target of the negative = can do both quantitive and qualitive significance, and attack the affirmative if either or both are not proved.
3. Harm overstated
4. Case turns

P.V.:
A. Demonstrate that the affirmative has not properly outlined the existence of a harm
B. Harm not significant: Prove that the harms or advantages of the affirmative are not sufficiently significant to warrant adopting the resolution.
C. Harm overstated: Successfully done, this mitigates the magnitude of the impact won by the affirmative.
D. Case turns: Most effective harm attack. Offensive negative strategy designed to demonstrate that the harms identified by the affirmative are not harms, but instead, benefits the status quo.
1. Begin Refutation Early: It is an advantage to begin refutation early-both in our speech and in the debate. Purpose is to immediately offset the effect of some of the opponents's arguments. (early in speech AND debate)
2. Conclude with Impact: We want to conclude with positive material deigned to advance our own case. After giving listeners reasons for rejecting the opponents's position, we give them positive reasons for concurring with our position. (give positive reasoning for concurring with our positions)
3. Incorporate Refutation into the Case: Although it is a good idea to open a speech with refutation, refutation is by no means confined to the 1st part of the speech. Because the well-planned case meets many of the objections of the opposition, we will often find it advisable to incorporate refutation into the case. (not just at the beginning)
4. Evaluate the Amount of Refutation: The amount varies from one occasion to another and depends on the judge, audience, and situation. In order to adapt to the audience more effectively, be sure to watch the judge or audience closely, look for overt and subtle signs of agreement or disagreeable.
(watch judge(s) and audience closely)
5. Use Organized Refutation: Advocates must use a clear, concise, carefully organized pattern of refutation that enables those who render the design to follow the refutation readily. Objective is to make is easy for judges to "flow" the argument. Skilled advocates clearly identify the specific arguments of their opponents that they are refuting, so that the judge will know exactly were they want their arguments to apply. The basic speaker responsibilities indicate an organized pattern of refutation and a clear division of speaker responsibilities.
(clear, concise, and careful)
6. Make Use of Contingency Plans: Advocates should prepare contingency plans; that is, they should complete briefs of evidence and arguments in advance to raise against issues the briefs will be fundamental in meeting the opposing case.
(compile briefs of evidence and arguments in advance)
- 4 methods of delivery available to the speaker are impromptu, extemporaneous, manuscript, and memorization. To some extent, the speaker's approach to delivery is dictated by the unique demand of the speaking occasion and its context/ Each method reflects both a type of speech or occasion and a style of content or tone.
1. Impromptu Speaking: A speaker is called upon to speak off-the-cuff, offering spontaneous, unscripted remarks is responsible to a question or argument offered by another, they are engaged in impromptu speaking. (self explanatory)
2. Extemporaneous Delivery: Is given from an outline or fairly substantial speaker's notes. It is more prepared than an impromptu speech, but not completely prepared. Speaker reads neither from a manuscript nor memorizes their entire speech; however neither are they completing spontaneous
- Provides all the advantages found in other methods of delivery and few disadvantage. .
3. Manuscript Delivery: The speaker prepares their speech carefully writing out in full, and reading it to the audience. Advantage is that it provides opportunity, even when under pressure of the debate or speaking occasion, for the speaker to say exactly what they want to say in exactly the way they want to say it. (Reads prewritten speech to an audience)
4. Memorized Delivery: Is a manuscript that has been committed to memory. It provide advantages of the manuscript method, as well as the additional advantage that the manuscript is not present. (self explanatory)