the process that occurs when carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere and acts like a blanket that holds in the heat
the alteration, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time
What is social change brought about by?
collective behavior and social movements
voluntary, often spontaneous activity in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values
What does collective behavior occur as a result of?
some common influence or stimulus that produces a response from a collectivity
a number of people who act together and may mutually transcend, bypass, or subvert established institutional patterns and structures
What are the three major factors contributing to the likelihood that collective behavior will occur?
structural factors that increase the chances of people responding in a particular way; timing; a breakdown in social control mechanisms and a corresponding feeling of normlessness
relatively large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity
a number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another's immediate vicinity
the publicly expressed feeling perceived by participants and observers as the most prominent in an episode of collective behavior
a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but who share little else in common
relatively large gatherings of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time
people who come together for a scheduled event and this share a common focus
crowds that provide opportunities for the expression of some strong emotion
collectivities so intensely focused on a specific purpose or object that they may erupt into violent or destructive behavior
a highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target
What are three types of acting crowds?
mobs, riots, panics
violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deep-seated emotions but not directed at one specific target
a form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior
nonviolent action that seeks to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it
crowds that engage in activties intended to achieve specific political goals
a theory that focuses on the social-psychological aspects of collective behavior; it attempts to explain how moods, attitudes, and behavior are communicated rapidly and why they are accepted by others
the interactive communication between persons such that the discontent of one person is communicated to another, who, in turn, reflects the discontent back to the first person
a theory focused on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs that many people may bring to crowd behavior
Emergent norm theory
theory that emphasizes the importance of social norms in shaping crowd behavior
When do emergent norms occur?
when people define a new situation as highly unusual or see a long-standing situation in a new light
collective behavior that takes place when people (who often are geographically separated from one another) respond to the same event in much the same way
unsubstantiated reports on an issue or subject
rumors about the personal lives of individuals
a form of dispersed collective behavior that occurs when a large number of people react with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior to a real or perceived threat
a temporary but widely copied activity enthusiastically followed by large numbers of people
a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance
the attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers
information provided by individuals or groups that have vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one
an organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action
movements which seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure
movements seeking to bring about a total change in society
movements that seek to produce radical change in individuals, which are concerned with renovating or renewing people through inner change
a characteristic of some religious movements that forecast the "end is near" and assert that an immediate change in behavior is imperative
movements that seek limited change in some aspect of people's behavior
movements that seek to prevent change or to undo change that has already occurred
What is another name for resistance movements
What happens in the preliminary (incipiency) stage of social movements?
widespread unrest is present as people begin to become aware of a problem in this social movement phase
What happens in the coalescence stage of social movements?
people begin to organize and to publicize the problem in this social movement phase
What happens in the institutionalization (bureaucratization) stage of social movements?
an organizational structure develops, and a paid staff begins to lead the group in this social movement phase
What are the three stages of social movements?
preliminary, coaslescence, institutionalization
What is the relative deprivation theory?
theory that people who are satisfied with their present condition are less likely to seek social change
the discontent that people may feel when they compare their achievements with those of similarly situated persons and find that they have less than they think they deserve
unfulfilled rising expectations
newly raised hopes of a better lifestyle that are not fulfilled as rapidly as the people expected or are not realized at all
What are the six conditions necessary to produce a social movement when they combine or interact in a particular situation?
structural conduciveness; structural strain; spread of a generalized belief; precipitating factors; mobilization for action; social control factors
Resource mobilization theory
theory focusing on the ability of members of a social movement to acquire resources and mobilize people in order to advance their cause
focusing attention in some bounded phenomenon by imparting meaning and significance to elements within the frame and setting them apart from what is outside the frame
framing that identifies a problem and attributes blame or causality to some group or entity so that the social movement has a target for its actions
framing that pinpoints possible solutions or remedies, based on the target previously identified
framing that provides a vocabulary of motives that compel people to take action
the linking together of interpretive orientations of individuals and social movement organizations so that there is congruence between individuals' interests, beliefs, and values and the movement's ideologies, goals and activities
What are the four distinct frame alignment processes that occur in social movements?
the process by which movement organizations reach individuals who already share the same world view as the organization
process that occurs when movements appeal to deeply held values and beliefs in the general population and link those to movement issues so that people's preexisting value commitments serve as a "hook" that can be used to recruit them
process that occurs when movements enlarge the boundaries of an initial frame to incorporate other issues that appear to be of importance to potential participants
process whereby the creation and maintenance of new values, beliefs, and meanings induce movement participation by redefining activities and events in such a manner that people believe they must become involved in collective action
Political opportunity theory
theory that states that people will choose those options for collective action that are most readily available to them and those options that will produce the most favorable outcome for their cause
options for collective action, with chances and risks attached to them that depend on factors outside the mobilizing group
theory based on the belief that patriarchy is a root cause of environmental problems
the belief that a disproportionate number of hazardous facilities are placed in low-income areas populated primarily by people of color
What are the key components of the value-added theory
a perceived problem, a perception that the authorities are not resolving the problem, a spread of the belief to an adequate number of people, a precipitating incident, mobilization of other people by leaders, a lack of social control
a framework of systems, such as transportation and utilities, that makes it possible to have specific land uses and a built environment that support people's daily activities and the nation's economy
What is the primary focus of research based on frame analysis?
the social construction of grievances through the process of social interaction
What is the primary focus of research based on political opportunity theory?
how social protests are directly related to the political opportunities that potential protesters and movement organizers believe exist within the political system at any given point in time
What is the primary focus of research based on new social movement theory?
factors of identity, such as race, class, gender and sexuality, as sources of collective action and social movements