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Biology Lab Final Exam
Terms in this set (16)
Be able to explain which phase of the cell cycle the cell is in most of the time.
Cells spend most of their time in interphase.
If I give you a slide of a "normal" tissue and a "cancerous" tissue of the same type, be able to determine which is "normal" and which is "cancerous" AND explain how you know.
Cancerous tissues will have more cells in mitosis, and less in interphase.
If given a diploid cell with a few chromosomes (maybe 4 or 6?), be able to describe the chromosome distribution at the end of Meiosis I and Meiosis II, including the number of daughter cells
The starting amount of chromosomes is 2n. Meiosis I separates the replicated homologous chromosomes, each made up of two sister chromatids, into two daughter cells , reducing the chromosome number in half, resulting in n chromosomes.
Meiosis II decouples the sister chromatids and the daughter chromosomes are separated into four daughter cells.
Be able to describe a pair of homologous chromosomes after crossing over.
A pair of homologous chromosomes after crossing over should have a region of combination of the two chromosomes.
Can you explain what you did with the corn seeds?
We grew genetically controlled seeds to predict results of the offspring, and compared it to the actual results.
If you are given a karyotype, can you identify the if there is an error and explain the consequences of the error?
There is an error if there is an extra or missing chromosome. Consequences of this error could result in genetic disorders to the offspring.
If a gamete is formed with a non-disjunction event, what happens to the chromosome number? How does this affect the zygote? Be able to explain how non-disjunction causes Down Syndrome.
Non-disjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes separating, resulting in an extra or missing chromosome, which could lead to the offspring having a genetic disorder.
Can you explain the process of isolating DNA from living cells? What is the purpose of each solution in the virtual and hands-on activities?
Collect the cells, then burst the cells open to release the DNA, separate the DNA from proteins and debris, then isolate the concentrated DNA.
The solution disrupts the cell membrane and nuclear envelope, causing the cells to bust open and release their DNA.
Given a template DNA strand sequence, be able to fill in the cDNA, the mRNA and the peptide sequence if given a codon chart.
cDNA, A=T, and G=C
mRNA, T=A, G=C, and A=U
Be able to explain how a certain type (point, deletion, insertion and frame shift) of mutation could change the product of transcription and translation.
o Is it possible that a mutation could be "silent" (have no effect on the protein product)? Why or why not?
Mutations change the sequence of amino acids during translation and transcription, which can change the protein that will be made.
Yes a mutation can be silent, as single amino acid can be changed in the sequence without changing what protein is made.
Be able to summarize the process of transcription and translation, including where they occur, "machinery" required and the products of each.
o Include tRNA and rRNA in this.
Transcription occurs in the nucleus and uses a strand of DNA as a template to build RNA.
Translation occurs in the ribosome and uses the RNA that is created to produce polypeptide amino acid chain, which will then be used to form a protein. RNA-polymerase and the ribosome are two key machines. required.
If I show you a screen shot of a methylated or demethylated gene, be able to identify it and explain what happens to the gene expression.
Methylated genes are separated by one phosphate group, while unmethylated genes have cytosine that are transformed to uracil.
Methylation regulates gene expression by recruiting proteins involved in gene repression.
If I give you an example from "lick your rats", you should be able to explain the methylation change and gene expression change, with the resulting "personality" change in the adult rat. Are these methylation changes temporary or permanent over the life of the rat?
Methylation change affects how the GR gene gets turned on, and cells being to make more GR protein, which would lead to the rat taking on a more relaxed personality. This is not a permanent change as the rat can be placed in a more stressful environment, which would lead to the rat being more anxious.
From the prelab, can you explain what happens in gel electrophoresis?
DNA moves through the gel and is repelled by a negative charge, and is pulled a positive charge.
If given a sample DNA sequence and an endonuclease (and recognition sequence), can you explain what fragments would be generated and how they would look on a gel?
Smaller molecules would travel further down the gel, and larger molecules would travel less.
Can you explain what you did in the "Do It Yourself Gel Electrophoresis" experiment. What was the purpose of this experiment?
We separated the molecules of the dye based on their size. The purpose of the experiment was to show how electrophoresis can be used in different fields, such as separating DNA in DNA testing.
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