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the maintenance of stable internal conditions


diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal


when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes


An organism that allows its internal salt concentration to change with the salinity of the surrounding water


An organism that controls its internal salt concentration

Marine animals

Invertebrates are osmoconformers - 3-4 % salt in sea isotonic but fish hypertonic to sea water as store urea bony fish hypotonic


Very toxic, soluble and permeable so diffuses


Nitrogenous waste, less toxic and produced in liver

Uric acid

Nitrogenous waste, less soluble than ammonia and urea can be excreted as precipitate

Protonephridia flame cells

Flatworms have tubes that terminate at flame bulbs, produce filtrate cilia draw water and solutes in urine released via pores


Ciliated funnel ( nephrostrome) with tubes leading to the nephridiopores for excretion in annelida one for each segment

Malphigian tubules

Insects have wastes from haemolymphs into tubules then into rectum and uric acid via faeces


Filtration, secretion and reabsorption

Bowmans capsule

Filter small blood liquid particles into tubule, this is the filtrate


Nitogenous waste (urea) glucose, salts, vitamin, and small molecules in a serum


Antidiuretic hormone enhances fluid retention increases water permeability in epithelium of distal tubules, and collecting duct.

Osmoreceptors in hypothalmus

Activated and stimulates ADH in posterior pituitary to retain fluid which dilutes extracellular fluid and reduces osmolarity


a measure of the total solute concentration per litre of solution


Juxtaglomerular apparatus tissue near glomerulus of kidney. Releases RENIN enzyme

Atrial natriuretic factor ANF

High blood pressure stretch the wall of the heart. ANF inhibits the release of RENIN and the reabsorption of NaCl

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