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diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
An organism that allows its internal salt concentration to change with the salinity of the surrounding water
Invertebrates are osmoconformers - 3-4 % salt in sea isotonic but fish hypertonic to sea water as store urea bony fish hypotonic
Protonephridia flame cells
Flatworms have tubes that terminate at flame bulbs, produce filtrate cilia draw water and solutes in urine released via pores
Ciliated funnel ( nephrostrome) with tubes leading to the nephridiopores for excretion in annelida one for each segment
Insects have wastes from haemolymphs into tubules then into rectum and uric acid via faeces
Antidiuretic hormone enhances fluid retention increases water permeability in epithelium of distal tubules, and collecting duct.
Osmoreceptors in hypothalmus
Activated and stimulates ADH in posterior pituitary to retain fluid which dilutes extracellular fluid and reduces osmolarity
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