Chapter 18: Nutrition, Body Composition, and Weight Management

_____ are substances needed for bodily function and many are essential to life
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Identify the various classes of lipids in the body. (Check all that apply.)-Phospholipids -Triglycerides -SterolsIdentify a common form of fiber in the dietMucilagesMatch the types of dietary fiber (in the left column) with their benefits (in the right column).soluble fiber --> diets rich in this fiber can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by decreasing blood cholesterol levels and reducing biomarkers of inflammation insoluble fiber --> the presence of this type of fiber in food reduces the intestinal transit time and, therefore, lowers the risk of constipation, diverticular disease, and colon cancerWhich of the following macronutrients is required in the highest quantity by the body?water_____ are macronutrients that are comprised of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; some of these macronutrients also include sulfur.Proteins_____ are organic substances that participate in a variety of metabolic processes in the body and are required for lifeVitaminsMatch the types of amino acids (in the left column) with their descriptions (in the right column).Nonessential amino acids --> they can be synthesized in cells and, therefore, are not required in the diet Essential amino acids --> they cannot be formed in the body and, therefore, must be obtained in the dietWhich of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?vitamin AMatch the various classes of lipids (in the left column) with their functions (in the right column).Triglycerides --> they provide a major source of stored energy in fat cells Sterols --> they are required to synthesize a variety of important substances such as vitamin D and steroid hormones Phospholipids --> they are required structural components for cell membranes and the membranes surrounding cellular organellesIdentify a true statement about water-soluble vitamins.Most of them are eliminated in the urine_____ are composed of long chains of monosaccharides connected by a chemical bond that cannot be degraded by human digestive enzymesdietary fibersA mineral is considered essential if _____a dietary deficiency results in physiological dysfunction or illnessIdentify the functions of water. (Check all that apply.)-It plays a key role in the transportation of nutrients in the blood. -It is essential for the regulation of body temperature. -It plays a key role in digestion of foods.Match the classes of minerals (in the left column) with their examples (in the right column).Major minerals --> Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and chloride Trace elements --> Iron, iodine, fluoride, zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, manganese, and molybdenumIdentify a true statement about vitaminsThey are needed in small amountsIdentify a true statement about fat-soluble vitaminsFat-soluble vitamins are stored within lipid components of the body_____ is the most abundant major mineral in the bodyCalciumIdentify a water-soluble vitaminvitamin CMatch the six sets of standards for dietary intake included in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) (in the left column) with their descriptions (in the right column).Estimated Average Requirement (EARs) --> it is the daily intake of a nutrient that will meet the needs of 50% of people within a defined age group Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) --> it is the nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%-98%) healthy individuals in a life stage Adequate intakes (AIs) --> it describes levels of nutrients for which there is insufficient data to establish the Estimated Average Requirements or recommended dietary allowance Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) --> hey are the maximum daily intake amounts of nutrients that will not cause adverse health effects in almost all individuals (97%-98%) within a specific age group Estimated energy requirement (EER) --> it is the average (daily) dietary energy intake that meets the needs of a healthy person that is maintaining his or her weight Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) --> They are the area of variation between lower and upper limits of intakes for carbohydrate, fat, and protein that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and mineralsIdentify a true statement about mineralsThey are individual chemical elements that are needed in small amountsThe _____ is a standard used in nutritional labelingDaily ValueMinerals that are required at levels lower than 100 mg/day are called _____trace elementsThe _____ _____ (GI) is a measurement of how much a specific carbohydrate food elevates blood glucose levelsglycemic indexFats help the human body to carry a large energy reserve, with little weight. The energy content of one pound of adipose tissue is _____3500 kcalIdentify the functions of calcium. (Check all that apply.)-It participates in both blood clotting and neurotransmission -It is a required component of both bones and teethMatch the types of lipoproteins (in the left column) with their characteristics (in the right column).Low density lipoprotein --> High levels of this type of lipoprotein are directly related to increased cardiovascular risk High density lipoprotein --> High levels of this type of lipoprotein provide protection from heart diseaseThe _____ _____ _____ (DRI) is an umbrella term that includes six sets of standards for dietary intake as recommended by the Food and Nutrition BoardDietary Reference IntakeThe adequate intake (AI) for total water intake (food and beverage combined) for adult men is _____3.7 L/dayThe daily value (DV) is a standard used to indicate how much of various nutrients is contained in a specific food product based on a _____ diet2000-calorie/dayMatch the minerals (in the left column) with their recommended dietary allowances for adults aged 19 to 50 years (in the right column)Magnesium --> 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women Iron --> 8 mg for men and 18 mg for women Zinc --> 11 mg for men and 8 mg for womenThe purpose of the glycemic index (GI) is to help _____those who have difficulty processing glucose make better decisions in planning mealsTrue or false: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is designed to provide up-to-date scientific knowledge about nutrition, physical activity, and other healthy lifestyle choicesTrueIdentify a function of fat in the human bodyIt plays a vital role in the synthesis of steroid hormonesIdentify the formula for calculating Body Mass Index (BMI)BMI = wt (kg) / ht (m2)In contrast to low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) _____carry less cholesterolThe underwater weighing method applies _____ to determine body volumeArchimedes' principleThe adequate intake (AI) for total water intake (food and beverage combined) is _____ for adult women2.7 L/dayWhich of the following ranges of percent body fat is viewed as healthy for female young adults (18-44 years old)?20-35The energy balance equation says that the changes in body energy stores is equal to _____the energy intake minus the energy expenditureAccording to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, identify the overarching Guidelines of the 2015-2020 report. (Check all that apply.)-To limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats -To follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan -To shift to healthier food and beverage choices -To support healthy eating patterns for allWhich of the following are the disadvantages of low carbohydrate diets? (Check all that apply.)-Long-term adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet plan is difficult. -They are often low in fiber._____ is the most common technique used to screen for body fatnessBody Mass Index (BMI)Which of the following techniques of measuring body fat is considered a gold standard to estimate body composition?Underwater weighingA(n) _____ _____ diet is a diet that provides less food energy than the individual expends during the daylow energyWhich of the following ranges of percent body fat is viewed as healthy for men who are 65 years or older?10-23In order to lose weight, one should _____achieve a negative caloric balanceThe framework for understanding weight management is grounded in the fact that human physiology complies with _____, which states that energy can be transformed from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyedthe first law of thermodynamicsTrue or false: Adherence to a diet is lowest when the eating plan contains a wide variety of foodsFalseIdentify the disadvantages of low carbohydrate/high protein diets. (Check all that apply.)-These diets are often high in fat, which can elevate circulating cholesterol -High protein intake poses a risk for people with kidney disorders.True or false: Low-energy diets often provide 800 to 1200 kcal/dayTrueA decrease in lean mass as a result of weight loss diets is undesirable because _____lean mass is primarily responsible for the majority of the resting energy expenditureIdentify a true statement about the relationship between diet and weight lossThe macronutrient content of a diet is not the key to weight lossWhich of the following are the steps in the process of achieving a healthy percent body fat? (Check all that apply.)-Determining the current body composition -Establishing the desired percent body fatThe main factor that predicts weight loss in response to a low-energy diet plan is _____adherenceWeight loss diets inevitably result in a loss of lean tissue. Identify a reason why this loss is unwanted.Loss of skeletal muscle mass results in reduced strength