Unit 4 Test
Terms in this set (39)
famous for his model of the heliocentric universe His work was the catalyst for Galileo's work. Waited til right before death to publish his beliefs
Widely published the idea of a heliocentric universe charged with heresy and sentenced to house arrest.
published works between 1689-1695 Famous for stating a more optimistic view of mankind than Hobbes. He said that all men were basically good and that we all have inalienable rights like life, liberty, and property. Government should protect these rights, but its power should be limited.
famous scientist /astronomer that proved the orbits of the planet were not perfect circles due to the fact that some of them appeared larger or smaller at different times.
Sir Isaac Newton
famous scientist/astronomer/mathematician. Invented calculus as well as the laws of motion/physics and the law of gravity. He had the epiphany about gravity when an apple fell off a tree and hit him in the head. All items that have a mass have gravity. If objects are in a vacuum, they will be attracted to the largest item near it.
The Baron of Montesquieu
believed in the preservation of peoples' rights by separating the government into 3 branches (executive, legislative, and judicial)
- believed that all people were basically good and that society was the culprit in the corruption of man. If all men were totally equal, with no rank or class, all problems would solve themselves. In his book, The Social Contract, he stated that man should succumb to the "general will" (or the majority's wishes).
published Leviathan. In it, he described a world with no laws or government (to prove a point). He said that we MUST have authority (in the form of a monarch) to keep peace and order. Without it, we are no better than animals. Mankind is wicked and corrupt, there is no hope without authority. Once that monarch is in power, you are stuck. You CANNOT and MUST NOT rebel. It upsets the order of things.
Sir Francis Bacon
created the Baconican method (what we now call the Scientific Method) Problem - Hypothesis - experiment - observation - conclusion
belief that the sun is the center of the universe/ solar system
belief that the earth is the center of the universe/solar system
A logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution
Act passed by England prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
British deeply in debt partly due to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Stated that the British Parliament had the same power to tax in the colonies as it did in Great Britain. Parliament emphasized its authority to make binding laws on the American colonies.
passed by Parliament in 1767, placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Led to outrage and tons of people boycotted British goods.
law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston harbor
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
A document written in 1787 that describes a "framework of government" by the thirteen colonies after the American Revolutionary War. It embodied the social view of the time. By starting with "We the people" it made it clear that all its citizens consented to this document. It described three branches of government: the legislature, executive and judicial which were in balance of power. The amendments provide individuals with various freedoms, civil rights, and protection
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He led the most radical phase of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror. 28 July 1794, Robespierre was guillotined without trial
..., Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
A machine used to behead people; it was suppose to make death quick and painless
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
A council of representatives that advise the French king
0.5% of the population made up of Clergy
2.5% of population made up of nobility
97% of the population made up of commoners
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens. Approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Liberte Egalite Fraternite
Liberty Equality Brotherhood Chant used by French Revolutionaries.
Beginning of American Revolution
The American Revolution began in April of 1775 with The Battles of Lexington and Concord
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