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Terms in this set (31)
(T/F) Semilunar valves include pulmonary and aortic valves.
(T/F) A heart with mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation can force blood back into the left atrium.
(T/F) Alpha cells secrete glucagon that promotes lower blood glucose by increasing peripheral glucose uptake.
(T/F) Grave's disease is an autoimmune disease. Hyperthyroid goiter is often observed in people with this medical condition.
(T/F) Cerebral palsy is a congenital disease characterized by abnormal electrical discharge in the cerebral cortex.
(T/F) Hypoxia refers to insufficient or absent blood flow to provide adequate oxygenation, which always results in ischemia.
This heart defect is characterized by the underdevelopment of the left side of the heart, which results in systemic and pulmonary blood mix in the right atrium.
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- Atherosclerotic heart disease
- Atrial septal defect
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
In ____(a)____ defects, blood shunts from left to right side of the heart. SaO2 in people with this condition is ____(b)____.
- (a) acyanotic; (b) below normal
- (a) cyanotic; (b) normal
- (a) acyanotic; (b) normal
- (a) cyanotic; (b) below normal
(a) acyanotic; (b) normal
Which of the characteristics is NOT associated with the Tetralogy of Fallot?
- Hypertrophy of the left atrium
- Pulmonary stenosis
- Ventricular septal defect
- Overriding aorta
Hypertrophy of the left atrium
Which of the following conditions is NOT an example of acyanotic defects?
- Atrial septal defect
- Patent ductus arteriosus
- Double outlet right ventricle
- Ventricular septal defect
Double outlet right ventricle
Which of the following statements is FALSE about ventricular septal defects (VSD)?
- If this is not treated, it can lead to heart failure
- Blood from the right ventricle flows into the left ventricle
- The ventricular septum has openings
- VSD often causes pulmonary congestion
Blood from the right ventricle flows into the left ventricle
Which of the following statements is TRUE about coronary artery disease (CAD)?
- CAD usually causes excess O2 supply to myocardium
- Myocardial ischemia is reversible
- Atherosclerotic plaque contains fat only
- Zone of hypoxic injury is irreversible
Myocardial ischemia is reversible
List the following events of heart failure in the correct order.
(a)Injury to heart
(b) Increased cardiac workload
(c) Myocardial cell changes
(d) Decreased cardiac output
(e) Neuro-humoral response
Which of the following statements is FALSE about infections of heart?
- Rheumatic heart disease can damage the valves
- Myocarditis can be caused by acute viral infection
- Immune hypersensitivity can directly damage the heart
- Infective endocarditis is characterized by a direct infection of heart wall
Immune hypersensitivity can directly damage the heart
Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE about pancreas?
(a) Glucagon and insulin are secreted through pancreatic ducts (b) Islets of Langerhans have own ductal system
(c) Increased levels of enzymes such as amylase and lipase can be observed in acute pancreatitis
- (a) only
- (b) and (c)
- (c) only
- (a), (b), and (c)
____(a)____ pancreatitis is an irreversible disease that is mostly caused by ____(b)____.
- (a) Chronic; (b) unknown reason
- (a) Acute; (b) alcohol abuse
- (a) Chronic; (b) alcohol abuse
- (a) Acute; (b) gall stones
(a) Chronic; (b) alcohol abuse
Which of the following statements is FALSE about type I diabetes?
- Peripheral cells become resistant to the effect of insulin
- Most patients are diagnosed during childhood
- Immune cells attack normal beta cells
- Absolute lack of insulin
Peripheral cells become resistant to the effect of insulin
Which of the following statements is FALSE about diabetes?
- Neuropathy can be caused by diabetes
- Secondary type II diabetes disappears with correction of the underlying condition
- Prediabetic individuals can have high level of insulin in blood while fasting blood glucose level is still normal
- Long-term use of steroids can cause type I diabetes
Long-term use of steroids can cause type I diabetes
Find hormone(s) secreted by anterior pituitary gland (Select ALL that apply).
- Antidiuretic hormone
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone
- Growth hormone releasing hormone
- Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
- thyroid-stimulating hormone
- growth hormone releasing hormone
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
- Prolactin stimulates uterus contraction during delivery
- Tissue growth can be induced by growth hormone
- Adrenal cortex secretes corticosteroids
- Luteinizing hormone acts on testis and stimulates testosterone secretion
Prolactin stimulates uterus contraction during delivery
Which of the following statements is FALSE about disorders of the pituitary gland?
- Hyperpituitarism can cause excessive growth hormone secretion
- Acromegaly is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone mostly in adulthood
- Pituitary adenoma only occurs in anterior pituitary gland
- Surgery and radiation therapy often lead to hyperpituitarism
Surgery and radiation therapy often lead to hyperpituitarism
___________________ is a chronic autoimmune disease. People with this condition for a long time usually show hypothyroidism due to prolonged inflammation that prevents the thyroid from producing enough hormones.
- ACTH adenoma
- Hashimoto's disease
- Cushing's syndrome
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is primarily responsible for cognition and voluntary movement?
- Temporal lobe
- Occipital lobe
- Parietal lobe
- Frontal lobe
Which of the following statements is FALSE about diseases caused by increased intracranial pressure?
- Impaired resorption of cerebrospinal fluid can result in hydrocephalus
- Brain herniation can be caused by hemorrhage
- Cerebral edema is characterized by enlarged ventricles due to increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid
- Vasogenic edema is associated with disruption of the blood-brain barrier
Cerebral edema is characterized by enlarged ventricles due to increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid
Spinal cord injury can result in paralysis. ____(a)____ is paralysis of the lower limbs. ____(a)____ is paralysis of one side of the body.
- (a) Hemiplegia; (b) Paraplegia
- (a) Quadriplegia; (b) Hemiplegia
- (a) Paraplegia; (b) Hemiplegia
- (a) Paraplegia; (b) Quadriplegia
(a) Paraplegia; (b) Hemiplegia
Which of the following statements is TRUE about central nervous system trauma?
- Contusion can lead to chronic brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease
- Epidural hematoma is often accompanied with artery injuries, which results in fast accumulation of blood
- Coup injury and contrecoup injury are two primary types of concussion
- Shaken baby syndrome results from epidural hematoma
Epidural hematoma is often accompanied with artery injuries, which results in fast accumulation of blood
Which of the following statements is FALSE about global hypoxia and local ischemia?
- Hemorrhagic infarcts are mostly caused by atherosclerotic stenosis associated with thrombotic embolism
- Carbon monoxide poisoning, severe anemia, and smoke inhalation can cause global hypoxia
- Watershed infarcts is irreversible
- Laminar cortical necrosis is irreversible
Hemorrhagic infarcts are mostly caused by atherosclerotic stenosis associated with thrombotic embolism
Aerobic bacteria usually cause ____(a)____, whereas anaerobic bacteria usually cause ____(b)____. Poliovirus usually infects ____(c)____.
- (a) encephalitis; (b) meningitis; (c) spinal sensory neurons
- (a) aneurysm; (b) encephalitis; (c) peripheral nerves
- (a) brain abscess; (b) meningitis; (c) cerebral cortex
- (a) meningitis; (b) brain abscess; (c) brainstem and spinal motor neurons
(a) meningitis; (b) brain abscess; (c) brainstem and spinal motor neurons
Patients with ____(a)____ show impaired ability to recognize people and things, while patients with ____(b)____ show impaired comprehension and/or use of language.
- (a) aphasia; (b) apraxia
- (a) apraxia; (b) aphasia
- (a) apraxia; (b) agnosia
- (a) agnosia; (b) aphasia
(a) agnosia; (b) aphasia
___________________ is characterized by motor axon demyelination. Clinical symptoms mainly include motor symptoms such as weakness, atrophy, and impaired locomotion. However, patients with this medical condition usually have intact cognition and sensation.
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- Huntington's disease
- Parkinson's disease
- Multiple sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
[Bonus Question] During the endocrine system lecture, Sanghee used an analogy to explain how the endocrine system works in human body. What was it?
- Fiber-optic internet
- Mobile phone
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