Only $2.99/month

Terms in this set (314)

1. Codebase:Put all the code in a single repository that belongs to a version control system

2. Dependencies:Define the dependencies of the application, automate the collection of the dependent components, and isolate the dependencies for minimizing their impact on the application

3. Config: Externalize the values use by the application by connecting to things that might change. Applications at times store configas constants in the code. But, the 12-factor App requires strict separation of configfrom code.

4. Backing services:A backing service is any service the application access over the network during its operation, example services include datastores, messaging/queueing systems and caching systems. Treat backing services same as attached resources, accessed via a URL or other locator stored in the config.

5. Build, Release,and Run: During the build stage, the code is converted in to an executable bundle of scripts, assets, and binaries known as a build. The release stage takes the build, and combines it with the current config. The resulting release contains both the build and the configand is ready for immediate execution. The run stage runs the application in the execution environment. The 12-factor application uses strict separation between the build, release, and run stages. This separation is because the build stage requires lot of work, and developers manage it. The run stage should be as simple as possible. So that application runs well, and that if a server gets restarted, the application starts up again on launch without the need for human intervention.

6. Processes: Run application as one or more stateless processes. Any data that required persistence must be stored in a statefulbacking service, typically a database. Usually the application may run on many servers for providing load balancing and fault tolerance. The right approach is that the state of the system is stored in the database and shared storage, not on the individual server instances. If a server goes down due to some reasons, another server can handle the traffic.

7. Port Binding: Access services through well-defined URLs or ports. The 12-factor application is self-containedand does not rely on runtime creation of a web-facing service. The application exports HTTP as a service by binding to a port, and listening to requests coming in on that port. For example, by using the port binding recommendations, it is possible to point to another service simply by pointing to another URL. That URL could be on the same physical machine or at a public cloud service provider.

8. Concurrency: Scale out via the process model. When anapplication runs, lot of processes are performing various tasks. By running processes independently, and the application scalesbetter. In particular, it allows doing more stuff concurrently by dynamically adding extra servers.

9. Disposability: Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful shutdown. Factor #6 -Processes describes a stateless process that has nothing to preload, nothing to store on shutdown. This method enables applications to start and shut down quickly. Application should be robust against crashing, if it does, it should always be able to start back up cleanly.

10. Dev/ProdParity: Keep development and production environments, and everything in between as identical as possible. In recent times, organizations have a much more rapid cycle between developing a change to the application and deploying that change into production. For many organizations, this implementationhappens in a matter of hours. To facilitate that shorter cycle, it is desirable to keep a developer's local environment as similar as possible to production.

11. Logs: Treat logs as event streams. This method enables orchestration and management tools to parse these event streams and create alerts. Furthermore, this method makes easier to access and examine logs for debugging and management of the application.

12. Admin Processes: Ensure that all administrative activities become defined processes that can easily repeat by anyone. Do not leave anything that must be completed to operate or maintain the application inside someone's head. If it must be completed as a part of the administrative activity, build a process to perform by anyone.
•Compute System: A compute system is a computing device (combination of hardware, firmware, and system software) that runs business applications. Examples of compute systems include physical servers, desktops, laptops, and mobile devices. The term compute system refers to physical servers and hosts on which platform software, management software, and business applications of an organization are deployed.

•Storage System: Data created by individuals, businesses, and applications need to be persistently stored so that it can be retrieved when required for processing or analysis. A storage system is the repository for saving and retrieving data and is integral to any cloud infrastructure. A storage system has devices, called storage devices (or storage) that enable the persistent storage and the retrieval of data. Storage capacity is typically offered to consumers along with compute systems. Apart from providing storage along with compute systems,a provider may also offer storage capacity as a service (Storageas a Service), which enables consumers to store their data on the provider's storage systems in the cloud.

•Network System: It establishes communication paths between the devices in an IT infrastructure. Devices that are networked together are typically called nodes. A network enables information exchange and resource sharing among manynodes spread across different locations. A network may also be connected to other networks to enable data transfer between nodes. Cloud providers typically leverage different types of networks supporting different network protocols and transporting different classes of network traffic.
•Processor: It is also known as a Central Processing Unit (CPU). It is an integrated circuit (IC) that executes the instructions of a software program by performing fundamental arithmetical, logical, and input and output operations. A common processor and instruction set architecture is the x86 architecture with 32-bit and 64-bit processing capabilities. Modern processors have multiple cores, each capable of functioning as an individual processor.

•Random Access Memory (RAM): It is also called as main memory. It is a volatile data storage which stores the frequently used software program instructions. It allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time, there by increasing the speed of the system.

•Read Only Memory (ROM): It is a type of semiconductor memory and a nonvolatile memory. It contains the boot firmware, power management firmware, and other device-specific firmware.

•Motherboard: It is a printed circuit board (PCB) to which all compute system components are connected. It holds the major components like processor and memory, to carry out the computing operations. A motherboard consists ofintegrated components, such as a graphics processing unit (GPU), a network interface card (NIC), and adapters to connect to external storage devices.

•Operating System (OS): It is a system software that manages the systems hardware and software resources. It also controls the execution of the application programs and internal programs that run on it. All computer programs, except firmware, requires an operating system to function.It also acts as an interface between the user and the computer.
•Magnetic Tape Drive: It is a storage device that uses magnetic tape as the storage medium. It is a thin, long strip of plastic film that is coated with a magnetizablematerial. The tape is packed in plastic cassettes and cartridges. It provides linear sequential read and write data access. Organizations use this device to store large amounts of data, data backups, offsite archiving, and disaster recovery.

•Magnetic Disk Drive: It is a primary storage device that uses magnetization process to write, read, and access data. It is covered with a magnetic coating and stores data in form of tracks and sectors. Tracks are the circular divisions of the disk and are further divided into sectors that contain blocks of data. All read and write operations on the magnetic disk are performed on the sectors. Hard disk drive is a common example of magnetic disks. It consists of a rotating magnetic surface and a mechanical arm that circulates over the disk. The mechanical arm is used to read from the disk and to write data to the disk.

•Solid-State Drive (SSD): It uses semiconductor-based memory, such as NAND and NOR chips, to store data. SSDs, also known as "flash drives", deliver the ultrahigh performance required by performance-sensitive applications. These devices, unlike conventional mechanical disk drives, contain no moving parts and therefore do not exhibit the latencies associated with read/write head movement and disk rotation. Compared to other available storage devices, SSDs deliver a relatively higher number of input/output operations per second (IOPS) withlow response times. They also consume less power and typically have a longer lifetime as compared to mechanical drives. However, flash drives do have the highest cost per gigabyte ($/GB) ratio.

•Optical Disk Drive: It is a storage device that uses optical storage techniques to read and write data. It stores data digitally by using laser beams, which is transmitted from a laser head mounted on an optical disk drive to read and write data. It is used as a portable and secondary storage device. Common examples of optical disk drive are compact disks (CD), digital versatile/video disks (DVD), and Blu-ray disks.
•Object-based storage is a way to store file data in the form of objects. It is based on the content and other attributes of the data rather than the name and location of the file. An object contains user data, related metadata, and user defined attributes of data. The additional metadata or attributes enable optimized search, retention, and deletion of objects. For example, an MRI scan of a patient is stored as a file in a NAS system. The metadata is basic and may include information such as file name, date of creation, owner, and file type. The metadata component of the object may include additional information such as patient name, ID, attending physician's name, and so on, apart from the basic metadata.
•A unique identifier known as object ID identifies the object stored in the object-based storage system. The object ID allows easy access to objects without having to specify the storage location. The object ID is generated using specialized algorithms such as a hash function on the data. It guarantees that every object is uniquely identified. Any changes in the object, like user-based edits to the file, results in a new object ID. It makes object-based storage a preferred option for long-term data archiving to meet regulatory or compliance requirements. The object-based storage system uses a flat, nonhierarchical address space to store data, providing the flexibility to scale massively. Cloud service providers use object-based storage systems to offer Storage as a Service because of its inherent security, scalability, and automated data management capabilities. Object-based storage systems support web service access via REST and SOAP.
as the kernel of any OS, including process management, file system management, and memory management. It is designed and optimized to run multiple VMs concurrently. It receives requests for resources through the VMM, and presents the requests to the physical hardware. Each virtual machine is assigned a VMM that gets a share of the processor, memory, I/O devices, and storage from the physical compute system to successfully run the VM. The VMM abstracts the physical hardware, and appears as a physical compute system with processor, memory, I/O devices, and other components that are essential for an OS and applications to run. The VMM receives resource requests from the VM, which it passes to the kernel, and presents the virtual hardware to the VM.
There are two types of hypervisors. Theyare bare-metal hypervisor and hosted hypervisor.

•Bare-metal hypervisor: It is also called asType 1 hypervisor. Itis directly installed on topof the system hardware without any underlying operating system or any other software. It is designed mainly for enterprise data center. Few examples of bare-metal hypervisor are Oracle OVM for SPRAC, ESXi, Hyper-V, and KVM

•Hosted hypervisor:It is also called as Type 2 hypervisor. It is installed as an application or software on an operating system. In this approach, the hypervisor does not have direct access to the hardware. All requests must pass through the operating system running on the physical compute system. Few examplesof hosted hypervisor are VMware Fusion, Oracle Virtual Box, Solaris Zones, and VMware Workstation.
1.Abstraction and pooling:SDI abstracts and pools IT resources across heterogeneous infrastructure. IT resources are pooled to serve multiple users or consumers using a multitenant model. Multitenancy enables multiple consumers to share the pooled resources, which improves utilization of the resource pool. Resources from the pool are dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand.

2.Automated, policy-driven provisioning including data protection:In the SDI model, IT services are dynamically created and provisioned including data protection from available resources based on defined policy. If the policy changes, the environment dynamically and automatically responds with the new requested service level.

3.Unified management:Traditional multivendor, siloed environments require independent management, which is complex and time consuming. SDI provides a unified storage management interface that provides an abstract view of the IT infrastructure. Unified management provides a single control point for the entire infrastructure across all physical and virtual resources.

4.Self-service:SDI enables automated provisioning and self-service access to IT resources. It enables organizations to allow users to select services from a self-service catalog and self-provision them.

5.Metering:Measures the usage of resources per user anda metering system reports the values. Metering helps in controlling and optimizing resource usage and generating bills for the utilized resources.

6.Open and extensible:An SDI environment is open and easy to extend, which enables adding new capabilities. An extensible architecture enables integrating multivendor resources, and external management interfaces and applications into the SDI environment by using APIs.
converged infrastructure system includes five logical sections.
They are network, storage, compute, virtualization, and management. Each section performs a specific set of functions and has various types of hardware or software components.

1.Network: Itprovides connectivity for communication between all components inside a converged infrastructure system and between the converged infrastructure system and the organization's core data center network.The network can be logically divided into two parts: an Ethernet local area network or LANand a storage area network or SAN. Converged infrastructure systems may either utilize the Ethernet switches in LAN and FibreChannel. In few cases it uses theEthernet switches for SAN, or unified switches such as FibreChannel over the Ethernet switches as an alternative to both Ethernet and FibreChannel switches.

2.Storage: It provides asecure place to store data in converged infrastructure systems. The core components of the storage layer include storage controllers and storage drives such as flash drives and disk drives. A storage controller runs a purpose-built operating system that is responsible for performing several storage-related functions. Thefunctions areprovisioning block and file storage for application servers, serving I/Osfrom the servers, and replicating data. Each storage controller consists of one or more processors and a certain amount of cache memory to process the I/O requests from the servers.

3.Compute:Itruns operating system such as Linux and Windows and business applications inconverged infrastructure systems. It includes blade servers or rack mount servers, and interconnecting devices. The interconnecting devices connect the blade or rack mount servers to the network and storage layers of the converged infrastructure system. They support both LAN and SAN connectivity for all servers. In this example, a pair of interconnecting devices is used to connect all the blade servers to the network.

4.Virtualization:It uses hypervisors to create virtualization layer in converged infrastructure systems.The hypervisor abstracts the physical hardware of a physical compute system from the operating system and enables the creation of multiple virtual machines. A virtual machine appears as a physical compute system with its own CPU, memory, network controller, and storage drives to the operating system running on it. But, all virtual machines share underlying hardware of the physical compute system and the hypervisor allocates the compute system's hardware resources dynamically to each virtual machine.

5.Management: Managing a converged infrastructure system is accomplished in various ways. The most important aspect is that there are various choices to best fit an organization's needs ranging from individual element managers to more encompassing unified manager.Element managers are softwaresfor managing individual components in a converged infrastructure system. Different element managers are used to configure different components present in compute, network, storage, and virtualization layers of a converged infrastructure system.The unified manager software provides a central platform for end-to-end monitoring and management of a converged infrastructure system. It interacts with individual element managers to collect information on the infrastructure configurations, connectivity, and utilization and provides a consolidated view of converged infrastructure resources. It also automates much error prone, tedious, and day-to-day resource provisioning tasks through interaction with element managers.
1.Simplicity: Many of the benefits of converged infrastructure are from the simplicity and standardization of working with an integrated platform rather than multiple technology stacks. The entire process of deploying infrastructure is simpler and easier that covers planning, purchasing, installation, upgrades, troubleshooting, performance management, and vendor management.

2.Performance: In a highly virtualized environment, server utilization may already be high. Converged infrastructure extends this efficiency to storage and network port utilization and enables better
performance optimization of the overall infrastructure.

3.Availability:Greater reliability means higher availability of infrastructure, applications, and services. Converged infrastructure enables IT to meet its service-level agreements and the business to meet its performance promises to customers.

4.Speed:Converged infrastructure can be deployed in record time. If the new infrastructure is for applications development, it can be spun up almost instantaneously, which means that developers can do their jobs faster. IT can respond to business requests with, "You can have it now," rather than, "You can have it in a few months." And the time to market of technology-based offerings increases.

5.Scalability:With converged infrastructure, it is also easier to expand or shrink available resources with changing workloads and requirements.

6.Staffing:Converged infrastructure requires less IT staff to operate and manage it. It reducesthe cost spent and increases the ability to support business and infrastructure growth without adding staff.If IT professionals spend less time on the mechanics of infrastructure integration and management, they have more time for more value-adding activities, and they can be increasingly customer-facing and responsive.

7.Risk: Converged infrastructure reduces infrastructure supply chain risk through procurement control,testing,and certification of equipment. It reduces operational risk through robust and comprehensive tools for infrastructure control, including security, and automation to minimize human error. Converged infrastructure also reduces risk to business continuity through high availability and reliability, less disruptive upgrades, and a solid platform for disaster recovery.

8.Innovation: Converged infrastructure facilitates business innovation in two powerful ways. One, it provides a simplified path to the cloud.Abusiness can experiment with and use a vast and growing array of innovative and specialized software and services. Two, when software developers have computing environments on demand, they can experiment more, prototype more, iterate with their business partners, and discover superior business solutions.

9.Cost:The cost advantages of converged infrastructure can be sliced and diced many ways, but you should expect to realize and measure savings in four basic areas. They are procurement, physical operations, infrastructure management, and staff.
Dell EMC Elastic Cloud Storage (ECS) is software-defined object storage designed for both traditional and next-generation workloads with high scalability, flexibility, and resiliency. ECS provides significant value for enterprises and service providers seeking a platform architected to support rapid data growth.
The features of ECS that enable enterprises to globally manage and store distributed content at scale include:
•Flexible Deployment -ECS has unmatched flexibility to deploy as an appliance, software-only solution, or in the cloud.
•Enterprise Grade -ECS provides customers more control of their data assets with enterprise class object, file, and HDFS storage in a secure and compliant system.
•TCO Reduction -ECS can dramatically reduce TCO relative to traditional storage and public cloud storage. It even offers a lower TCO than Tape for long-term retention.
•The primary use cases of ECS are:
•Geo Protected Archive -ECS serves as a secure and affordable on-premisecloud for archival and long-term retention purposes. Using ECS as an archive tier can significantly reduce primary storage capacities.
•Global Content Repository -ECS enables any organization to consolidate multiple storage systems into a single, globally accessible, and efficient content repository.
•Cloud Backup -ECS can be used as a cloud target backup for customer's primary data. For instance, utilizing CloudPoolsto tier data from Isilonto ECS. Third party cloud backup solutions can also typically be redirected to ECS as the cloud backup target.
A snapshot is a virtual copy of a set of files, VM, or LUN as they appeared at a specific point-in-time (PIT). A point-in-time copy of data contains a consistent image of the data as it appeared ata given point in time.Snapshots can establish recovery points in just a small fraction of time and can significantly reduce RPO by supporting more frequent recovery points. If a file is lost or corrupted, it can typically be restored from the latest snapshot data in just a few seconds. A file system (FS) snapshot creates a copy of a file system at a specific point-in-time (as shown in the slide), even while the original file system continues to be updated and used normally. FS snapshot is a pointer-based replica that requires a fraction of the space used by the production FS. It uses the Copy on First Write (CoFW) principle to create snapshots.
When a snapshot is created, a bitmap and blockmap are created in the metadata of the snapshot FS. The bitmap is used to keep track of blocks that are changed on the production FS after the snapshot creation. The blockmap is used to indicate the exact address from which the data is to be read when the data is accessed from the snapshot FS. Immediately after the creation of the FS snapshot, all reads from the snapshot are actually served by reading the production FS. In a CoFWmechanism, if a write I/O is issued to the production FS for the first time after the creation of a snapshot, the I/O is held and the original data of production FS corresponding to that location is moved to the snapshot FS. Then, the write is allowed to the production FS. The bitmap and the blockmap are updated accordingly. The subsequent writes to the same location will not initiate the CoFWactivity. To read from the snapshot FS, the bitmap is consulted. If the bit is 0, then the read will be directed to the production FS. If the bit is 1, then the block address will be obtained from the blockmap and the data will be read from that address on the snapshot FS. Read requests from the production FS work as normal.
asynchronous remote replication, a write from a production compute system is committed to the source and immediately acknowledged to the compute system. Asynchronous replication also mitigates the impact to the application's response time because the writes are acknowledged immediately to the compute system. This enables to replicate data over distances of up to several thousand kilometers between the source site and the secondary site (remote locations). In this replication, the required bandwidth can be provisioned equal to or greater than the average write workload. In asynchronous replication,compute system writes are collected into buffer (delta set) at the source. This delta set is transferred to the remote site in regular intervals. Therefore, adequate buffer capacity should be provisioned to perform asynchronousreplication. Somestorage vendors offer a feature called delta set extension, which allows to offload delta set from buffer (cache) to specially configured drives. This feature makes asynchronous replication resilient to the temporary increase in write workload or loss of network link. In asynchronous replication, RPO depends on the size of the buffer, the available network bandwidth, and the write workload to the source. This replication can take advantage of locality of reference (repeated writes to the same location). If the same location is written multiple times in the buffer prior to transmission to the remote site, only the final version of the data is transmitted. This feature conserves link bandwidth.
Deduplication is the process of detecting and identifying the unique data segments (chunk) within a given set of data to eliminate redundancy. The use of deduplication techniques significantly reduces the amount of data to be backed up. Data deduplication operates by segmenting a dataset into blocks and identifying redundant data and writing the unique blocks to a backup target. To identify redundant blocks, the data deduplication system creates a hash value or digital signature—like a fingerprint—for each data block and an index of the signatures for a given repository. The index provides the reference list to determine whether blocks already exist in a repository. When the data deduplication system sees a block it has processed before, instead of storing the block again, it inserts a pointer to the original block in the repository. It is important to note that the data deduplication can be performed in backup as well as inproduction environment. In production environment, the deduplication is implemented at primary storage systems to eliminate redundant data in the production volume.
The effectiveness of data deduplication is expressed as a deduplication ratio, denoting the ratio of data before deduplication to the amount of data after deduplication. This ratio is typically depicted as "ratio:1" or "ratio X", (10:1 or 10 X). For example, if 200 GB of data consumes 20 GB of storage capacity after data deduplication, the space reduction ratio is 10:1. Every data deduplication vendor claims that their product offers a certain ratio of data reduction. However, the actual data deduplication ratio varies, based on many factors. These factors are discussed next.
In a data center environment, a high percentage of data that is retained on a backup media is redundant. The typical backup process for most organizations consists of a series of daily incremental backups and weekly full backups. Daily backups are usually retained for a few weeks and weekly full backups are retained for several months. Because of this process, multiple copies of identical or slowly-changing data are retained on backup media, leading to a high level of data redundancy. A large number of operating systems, application files and data files are common across multiple systems in a data center environment. Identical files such as Word documents, PowerPoint presentations and Excel spreadsheets, are stored by many users across an environment. Backups of these systems will contain a large number of identical files. Additionally, many users keep multiple versions of files that they are currently working on. Many of these files differ only slightly from other versions, but are seen by backup applications as new data that must be protected (as shown on the slide).
Due to this redundant data, the organizations are facing many challenges. Backing up redundantdata increases the amount of storage needed to protect the data and subsequently increases the storageinfrastructure cost. It is important for organizations to protect the data within the limited budget. Organizations are running out of backup window time and facing difficulties meeting recovery objectives. Backing up large amount of duplicate data at the remote site or cloud for DR purpose is also very cumbersome and requires lots of bandwidth.
Backup as a service enables organizations to procure backup services on-demand in the cloud. Organizations can build their own cloud infrastructure and provide backup services on demand to their employees/users. Someorganizations prefer hybrid cloud option for their backup strategy, keeping a local backup copy in their private cloud and using public cloud for keeping their remote copy for DR purpose. For providing backup as a service, the organizations and service providers should havenecessary backup technologies in place in order to meet the required service levels.
Backup as a service enables individual consumers or organizations to reduce their backup management overhead. It also enables the individual consumer/user to perform backup and recovery anytime, from anywhere, using a network connection. Consumers do not need to invest in capital equipment in order to implement and manage their backup infrastructure. These infrastructure resources are rented without obtaining ownership of the resources. Based on the consumer demand, backups can be scheduled and infrastructure resources can be allocated with a metering service. This will help to monitor and report resource consumption. Many organizations' remote and branch offices have limited or no backup in place. Mobile workers represent a particular risk because of the increased possibility of lost or stolen devices. Backing up to cloud ensures regular and automated backup of data. Cloud computing gives consumers the flexibility to select a backup technology, based on their requirement, and quickly move to a different technology when their backup requirement changes.
DELL EMC Data Domain deduplication storage system is a target-based data deduplication solution. Using high-speed, inline deduplication technology, the Data Domain system provides a storage footprint that is significantly smaller on average than that of the original data set. Data Domain Data Invulnerability Architecture provides defense against data integrity issues. DELL EMC Data Domain Boost software significantly increases backup performance by distributing the parts of the deduplication process to the backup server. With Data Domain Boost, only unique, compressed data segments are sent to a Data Domain system. For archiving and compliance solutions, Data Domain systems allow customers to cost-effectively archive non-changing data while keeping it online for fast, reliable access and recovery. DELL EMC Data Domain Extended Retention is a solution for long-term retention of backup data. It is designed with an internal tieringapproach to enable cost-effective, long-term retention of data on disk by implementing deduplication technology. Data Domain provides secure multi-tenancy that enables data protection-as-a-service for large enterprises and service providers who are looking to offer services based on Data Domain in a private or public cloud. With secure multi-tenancy, a Data Domain system will logically isolate tenant data, ensuring that each tenant's data is only visible and accessible to them. DELL EMC Data Domain Replicator software transfers only the deduplicatedand compressed unique changes across any IP network, requiring a fraction of the bandwidth, time, and cost, compared to traditional replication methods.
The problem management process detects problems and ensures that the underlying root cause that creates a problem is identified. Incident and problem management, although separate service management processes, require automated interaction between them and use integrated incident and problem management tools.
•Problem management team minimizes the adverse impact of incidents and problems causing errors in the cloud infrastructure. And initiates actions to prevent recurrence of incidents related to those errors. Problem handling activities may occur both reactively and proactively.
•Reactive problem management: It involves a review of all incidents and their history for problem identification. It prioritizes problems based on their impact to business and consumers. It identifies and investigates the root cause that creates a problem and initiates the most appropriate solution and/or preventive remediation for the problem. If complete resolution is not available, problem management provides solutions to reduce or eliminate the impact of a problem.
•Proactive problem management: It helps prevent problems. Proactive analysis of errors and alerts helps problem management team to identify and solve errors before the problem occurs.
•Problem management is responsible for creating the known error database. After problem resolution, the issue is analyzed and a determination is made whether to add it to the known error database. Inclusion of resolved problems to the known error database provides an opportunity to learn and better handle future incidents and problems.
The goal of availability management is to ensure that the stated availability commitments are consistently met. The availability management process optimizes the capability of cloud infrastructure, services, and the service management team to deliver a cost effective and sustained level of service that meets SLA requirements. The activities of availability management team are described below:
•Gathers information on the availability requirements for upgraded and new services. Different types of cloud services may be subjected to different availability commitments and recovery objectives. A provider may also decide to offer different availability levels for same type of services, creating tiered services.
•Proactively monitors whether availability of existing cloud services and infrastructure components is maintained within acceptable and agreed levels. The monitoring tools identify differences between the committed availability and the achieved availability of services and notify administrators through alerts.
•Interacts with incident and problem management teams, assisting them in resolving availability-related incidents and problems. Through this interaction, incident and problem management teams provide key input to the availability management team regarding the causes of service failures. Incident and problem management also provide information about errors or faults in the infrastructure components that may cause future service unavailability. With this information, the availability management team can quickly identify new availability requirements and areas where availability must be improved.
•Analyzes, plans, designs, and manages the procedures and technical features required to meet current and future availability needs of services at a justifiable cost. Based on the SLA requirements of enhanced and new services, and areas found for improvement, the team provides inputs. The inputsmay suggest changes in the existing business continuity (BC) solutions or architect new solutions that provide more tolerance and resilience against service failures. Some examples of BC solutions are clustering of compute systems and replicating database and file systems.
The goal of information security management is to prevent the occurrence of incidents or activities adversely affecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of informationand processes.Protects corporate and consumer data to the extent required to meet regulatory or compliance concerns both internal and external, and at reasonable/acceptable costs. The interests of all stakeholders of a cloud service, including consumers who rely on information and the IT infrastructure, are considered. Thekey functions of information security management are described below:
•Information security management team implements the cloud service provider's security requirements. It develops information security policies that govern the provider's approach towards information security management. These policies may be specific to a cloud service, an external service provider, an organizational unit, or they can be uniformly applicable. Top executivemanagement approves the Information security policies. These security assurances are often detailed in SLAs and contracts. Information security management requires periodic reviews and, as necessary, revision of these policies.
•Information security management team establishes a security management framework aligned with the security policies. The framework specifies security architecture, processes, mechanisms, tools, responsibilities for both consumers and cloud administrators, and standards needed to ensure information security in a cost-effective manner. The security architecture describes the following:
•The structure and behavior of security processes
•Methods of integrating security mechanisms with the existing IT infrastructure
•Service availability zones
•Locations to store data
•Security management roles.
The VMware vCenterOperations Management Suite includes a set of tools that automates performance, capacity, and configuration management, and provides an integrated approach to service management. It enables IT organizations to ensure service levels, optimum resource usage, and configuration compliance in virtualized and cloud environments. The vCenterOperations Management Suite includes four components. These components are described below:
•vCenterOperations Manager provides operations dashboards to gain visibility into the cloud infrastructure. It identifies potential performance bottlenecks automatically and helps remediate them before consumers notice problems. Further, it enables optimizing usage of capacity and performs capacity trend analysis.
•vCenterConfiguration Manager automates configuration management tasks such as configuration data collection, configuration change execution, configuration reporting, change auditing, and compliance assessment. This automation enables organizations to maintain configuration compliance and to enforce IT policies, regulatory requirements, and security hardening guidelines.
•vCenterHypericmonitors hardware resources, operating systems, middleware, and applications. It provides immediate notification if application performance degrades or unavailable. The notification enables administrators to ensure availability and reliability of business applications.
•vCenterInfrastructure Navigator automatically discovers application services running on the VMs and maps their dependency on IT infrastructure components.
Adopting cloud enables digital transformation, therefore new roles need to be created that performs tasks related to cloud services. Examples of tasks are service definition and creation, service administration and management, service governance and policy information, and service consumer management. Some of these tasks can be combined to become the responsibility of an individual or organizational role. A few examples of new roles required to perform tasks within a cloud environment include service manager, account manager, cloud architect, and service operation manager.
•A service manager is responsible for understanding consumers'needs and industry trends to drive an effective product strategy. The service manager ensures that IT delivers cost-competitive services that have the features that clients need. The service manager is also responsible for managing consumers' expectations of product offerings and serves as key interface between clients and IT staff.
•Aservice account manager supports service managers in service planning, development, and deployment. The service account manager maintains day-to-day contact to ensure thatconsumers' needs are met. They also assist clients with demand planning and communicate service offerings.
•A cloud architect is responsible for creating detailed designs for the cloud infrastructure.
•The service operations manager is responsible to streamline service delivery and execution. Service operations manager is also responsible to provide early warning for service issues, such as emerging capacity constraints, or unexpected increase in cost. The service operations manager also coordinates with the architecture team to define technology roadmaps and ensure thatservice level objectives are met.
Apart from the above roles, other roles such as cloud engineer, the DevOps engineer, and cloud administrator are also required.
•Acloud engineer is responsible for designing, planning, managing, maintaining, and supporting the cloud infrastructure.
•A cloud automation engineer is responsible for design and implementation of cloud provisioning processes for delivering cloud services.
•A vendor relationship manager is responsible to understand service needs of LOBs, determines which needs are good candidates for CSP, and also works with service managers.
•A DevOps engineer is responsible for development, testing, and operation of an
Agile is an iterative and incremental software development method.Examplesof agile methods are scrum, extreme programming, lean development, and so on.
The agile methodologies are effectiveat improving time to delivery, feature functionality, and quality. The agile methodologies are iterative, value quick delivery of working software for user review and testing, and implemented within the development organization.
Developers frequently build their own infrastructure as needed to investigate and test a particular product feature. These environments can be tweaked to fit the desires of the developer; however, transition to production availability requires operations to reproduce the developer's environment. The smooth transition from development into operations is affected in following circumstances:
•Specific configuration of a development environment is undocumented
•Development environment conflicts with the configuration of another environment
•Development environment deviates from established standards
If a feature requires new equipment, there is often delays to accommodate budgets and maintenance windows. Although these problems are common between development and operations teams, overcoming them is a core principle of theDevOps practices.
Transforming to the DevOps practices takes a clear vision, and more than anything else, it takes commitment from its employeesand management.
DevOps culture in cloud brings the following benefits:
•Faster application development and delivery to meet the business needs
•User demands that are quickly incorporated into the software
•Reduced cost for development, deployment, testing, and operations
•Flash: Data dense, highly performing flash storage reduces the cost of delivering consistent performance while reducing the number of drives required. Flash delivers the low-latency performance for next-generation applications and increased performance for traditional applications with better economics than disk drives. With flash drive deployment, organizations cansignificantly reduce the floor space, power, and cooling requirements needed to deliver storage services.
•Scale-Out: The scale-out architecture pools multiple nodes together in a cluster. It provides the capability to scale its resources by simply adding nodes to the cluster. By designing these systems to scale as a single managed scale-out system, IT can efficiently manage massive capacities with few resources.
•Software Defined: Software-defined on commodity hardware is a cost-efficient way to support massive data volumes. Further, a software-defined approach allows organizations to automate the configuration and deployment of IT services. The automated configuration reduces total cost of ownership, increases business agility, and provides a programmable approach to manage IT services.
•Cloud Enabled: Provides the capability to deploy and manage applications and services beyond an organization's data center. Specifically, cloud-enabled infrastructure enables back and forth mobility of applications and data between a public cloud and an organization's data center as required. It also helps in deploying private and hybrid clouds in the organization's own data center. Cloud extensibility increases business agility and reduces the burden of procuring and reserving capacity for peak hours and associated cost and management complexity.