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Terms in this set (64)
Collective noundescribe a group of individuals, animals, or things. Ex: Jury, team, family, audience (paired with singular verbs, ex: the family *is* moving.)PronounsTake the position and function of nouns but do not specifically name them - He, she, it, they, him, her, themWhat are the different types of Pronouns?Personal (Ex: He, she, they, it, we him, her, us, them, I, you) Demonstrative (Ex: This, these, that, those) Interrogative (Ex: which, who, whom, what, those) Indefinite (Ex: none, several, anything, something, anyone, everyone) Possessive (Ex: his, hers, theirs, mine, yours) Reciprocal (Ex: each other, one another) Relative (Ex: That, who whom, whose, which, whichever, whatsoever) Reflexive (Ex: myself, yourself, himself, herself, oneself, itself, ourselves, themselves)Personal pronountakes the place of a noun or nouns; they show number and gender example: singular: I, me, my, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its / plural: we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, they, them, their, theirsDemonstrative pronounreplaces a noun phrase. points out a person, place, or idea. Ex: This, these, that, thoseInterrogative pronounpronoun that asks a question; examples: who, whom, whose, what, whichIndefinite pronouna pronoun that does not refer to a specific, person, place, thing, or idea examples: everyone, everything, everybody, anybody, many, most, few, each, some, someone, all, nothing, nobody, and no onePossessive pronouna pronoun that shows ownership (Ex: his, hers, theirs, mine, yours)Reciprocal pronounIndicate that two or more people are acting in the same way towards the other (Ex: each other, one another)Relative pronounconnect phrases to a noun or pronoun (ex: that, who whom, whose, which, whichever, whatsoever)Reflexive pronounsrefer back to the person to whom the pronoun refers (ex: myself, yourself, himself, herself, oneself, itself, ourselves, themselves)AntedecentThe word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun. Ex: *John* loves his dog.Verba word or phrase that is used to express an action or a state of being; explain what the subject is *doing*What are the three different types of verbs?Action verbs Linking verbs Helping verbsAction verbA verb that expresses either physical or mental activity; Ex: play, type, jump, write, study, taste, develop Ex: Kat *imagines* that she is a mermaid in the ocean.Linking verbconnects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject; Ex: smell, taste, look, seem, grow, sound Ex: The mango *tastes* sweetHelping verbHelps the main verb express action or a state of being; Ex: be, am, is, was, have, has, do, did, can, could, may, might, should, must Ex: Jessica *is* planning a trip to Hawaii. Brenda *does* not like camping. Xavier *should* go to the dance tonight.Adjectivedescriptive words that modify nouns or pronouns; can be before or after the noun. Ex: This is a *big* house. (before) The house is *big*. (after)Punctuation rule for ADJECTIVESseparate a series of adjectives with commas expect for the last adjective before the noun. Ex: Their home was a large, rambling, old, white, two-story house. (Note: no comma before two-story)Adverbmodify and describe adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs; answer the questions: when, where, how, how often, how much, or to what extentMany (but not all) adjectives can be converted to adverbs by adding _____________.-ly Ex: She is a quick (adjective) learner. quick + -ly = quickly. She learns quickly.PrepositionA word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another wordPrepositional phrasesbegin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, or object of the preposition Ex: The cattle ran over the hill. over = preposition the hill = object of the prepositionExamples of Prepositionsabout, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but, by, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, out, outside, over, past, since, through, throughout, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, withoutExamples of prepositional phrasesabove the box around the box behind the box below the box besides the box by the box in the box into the box near the box on the box through the box to the box under the box up the boxConjunctiona word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause Ex: and, but, or, nor, yet, soWhat are the types of conjunctions?Coordinating SubordinatingCoordinating conjunctionJoins words, phrases or clauses of equal rank: and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet. (FANBOYS)Suboordinating Conjunctionjoin an independent clause with a dependent clause. Ex: after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, soon as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, every time, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, while Ex: Theresa was going to go kayaking on the river *unless* it started to rain.Interjectionword or expression that signifies spontaneous emotion or reaction; ex: Wow!, Yay!, Ouch!Clausesmallest grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verbWhat are the two types of clauses?independent and dependentIndependent clausecan stand alone as a complete sentence; contains a subject and predicate. cannot begin with a suboordinating conjunctionDependent clausedoes not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence; begins with a suboordinating conjunctionDirect objectthe object that receives the direct action of the verb; usually answers the questions: what or whom Ex: Ms. Shepard fed the cat. Ms. Shepard = subject fed = verb the cat = direct objectIndirect objectComes before the direct object. Tells to whom, for whom the action of the verb is done Ex: she gave HIM the cat. (to whom did she give the cat? to him). Mom gave BOBBY a bath. (to whom did she give a bath? to Bobby) Elijah made Penelope a cake. (to whom did he give a cake? to Penelope)Phrasetwo or more words that stand together as a single unit. does not have a subject/verb pairWhat is the difference between a clause and a phrase?clause has a subject/noun pair while a phrase does notWhat are the 7 different types of phrases?Noun phrase Prepositional phrase Participial phrase Gerund phrase Infinitive phrase Appositive phrase Absolute phraseNoun phrasenoun phrases include the noun and all its modifiers, as in "the big red bouncy ball"Prepositional phrasemade up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object Ex: I headed south *(for the warm winters)*.Participial phrasephrase that contains a participle and its modifiers and functions as an adjective to modify a noun or pronounGerund phrasea gerund with modifiers or a complement, all acting together as a noun Ex: *Swimming laps* was Harrison's favorite past time.Infinitive phrasePhrases that begin with an infinitive. (to + simple form of the verb) Ex: My family loves *to vacation at the beach*.Appositive phraseA noun that renames or clarifies another noun Ex: Dr. Masie, *the department chair in Chemistry*, is teaching the class.Absolute phrasecontains a subject but no acting verb Ex: *Her hands in the air*, she stared from the roller coaster into the dark tunnel.Predicatea verb and all the words that modify the verb; tells what is done by or to the subject Ex: Destiny *wanted to be a surfer* The lady from the bakery *cooked the meal for us tonight*Predicate adjectiveAn adjective that follows a linking verb and DESCRIBES the subject Ex: The lamp is blue The lamp = subject is = linking verb blue = predicate adjectivePredicate nominativea noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and RENAMES or IDENTIFIES the subject Ex: My favorite show is Game of Thrones. My favorite show = subject is = linking verb Game of Thrones = predicate nominative The places I have lived have been California, Texas, and Maine. The places I have lived = subject have been = linking verb California, Texas, and Maine = predicate nominativeWhat are the 4 types of sentences?declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatoryDeclarative sentencea sentence that makes a statement Ex: I'm drinking coffee this morning. Kirstin went to Europe last summer.Imperative sentenceA sentence that requests or commands. Ex: Go to school! Take out the trash.Interrogative sentenceA sentence that asks a question Ex: Do you think I should try out for the dance team?Exclamatory sentencea sentence expressing strong feeling, usually punctuated with an exclamation mark Ex: We won the championship! I can't wait to go to Thailand!