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Lecture 5 - epilepsy
Terms in this set (18)
Do seizures consitute epilepsy?
Seizures are a symptom of epilepsy. epilepsy is often diagnosed as a pattern of recurring seizures.
one in ___ have epilepsy in the US. (____ people total)
1 in 26.
What does epilepsy have a high comorbidity with?
depression, anxiety, cognitive disability, sleep disorders
What is SUDEP?
Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy
What does etiology mean?
cause of disease
What can cause epilepsy?
brain damage (from injury)
in combination with environmental risk factors
Episeply can be caused by ___ but for a seizure, you also have to have ___.
overexcitation of the brain;
hypersynchronization (neurons all firing simultaneously)
How do you get from interictal to ictal event (seizure)?
Sometimes it is the breakdown of inhibitory input (in epilepsy there is often atrophy of inhibitory interneurons.)
NMDAR activity ___ epilpsy.
increase excitation/ epilepsy
How does hypersynchronization happen?
GABA neurons synapse onto multiple glutamatergic neurons (act as control hubs). Turn them all off at same time, then when this stops, they all fire at the same time.
difference between focal and generalized seizure?
focal: one specific region of the brain is overexcited. usually symptoms arent as severe.
generalized: entire brain hyperexcitability. more severe symptoms
What are the main two areas of the brain that if compromised, lead to a generalized (whole brain) seizure?
HC & thalamus
what is epileptogenesis and what causes it?
probability of seizure increases after one.
caused by psotive feedback loop of LTP in response to increased excitation (leads to even more excitation next time)
What type of seizures have a very characterized EEG pattern?
absence seizures. (this is how you can diagnose these)
What is Dravet syndrome and what causes it?
Dravet syndrome is a form of severe epilepsy in babies.
caused by point mutations in sodium channels.
In Dravet syndrome, how does loss of Na channel function lead to hyperexcitability in neurons (causing the seizures/epilepsy)?
Impairs Na channels specifically in GABAergic neurons
Drugs that block sodium channels ___ seizures in dravet syndrome.
exacerbate (instead of help)
What does the etiology of dravet syndrome tell us about therapeutics?
Most epilepsy treatments are sodium channel blockers. These make dravet syndrome worse. So that is one way you can tell if they specifically have dravet. Also the need to have other medications.
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