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Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

League of nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

washington naval conference

1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence

5 power treaty

Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and U.S. limited the construction of warships and decreased their naval power.

4 power treaty

Agreement to respect one another's possessions in the Pacific

9 power treaty

Binded all countries to obey the "Open-Door Policy' in China

Kellog Briand pact

Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

doctrine of race

Hitler wanted to get rid of impurities so German power could rise

Doctrine of space

Hitler wanted Germany to have the most land


Japanese military occupation of Manchuria began with this incident of 1931, when an explosion destroyed a section of the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railway

Lytton Commission

investigated the independence of Manchukuo, recommended that it remained a part of China.

rape of nanking

In late 1937, Japan defeated the Chinese city of Nanking. Chinese civilians were brutalized and thousands were killed. The event shocked Western powers and contributed to sanctions against Japan.

spanish civil war

civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government


The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.

munich conference

1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.

cash and carry

policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.

quarantine speech

The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan's invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.

panay incident

1937 - On the Yantze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's appologies.

Vinson naval expansion act

abandon the phillipines and attack from the south


allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."

winston churchill

British statesman and leader during World War II

adolf hitler

German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)


the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms

Hideki Tojo

Prime minister of Japan during World War II

pearl harbor

base in hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which eagered America to enter the war

axis powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

admiral yamamoto

Japans Greatest naval strategists, who called for the attack on Pearl Harbor. He also commanded the fleet that attacked Midway Island.

vice admiral nagum

leads Japan's aircrafts during pearl harbor

admiral kimmel

The Commander-in-Chief of United States Pacific Fleet, in charge of Pearl Harbor was reduced in rank and removed from his position for failing to maintain an adequate state of preparedness

major general short

in charge of US navy during pearl harbor

operation barbarossa

codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.

battle for stalingrad

ultimate underdog story; Soviet forces repel German offensive in 1943 to maintain control of Stalingrad; turning point in war = German advances stopped, put on defensive

operation torch

Codename for allied invasion of North Africa from Novermber 1942 to September 1943


Planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris

operation overlord

the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day

operation tiger

Practice fight for D-Day - everything went wrong

battle of the bulge

WWII battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west

Great depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

double victory campaign

Civil rights call for victory against both fascism overseas and racial prejudice at home.

internment of japanese americans

Japanese Americans were place in camps because the government was afraid of spies and sabotage during WWII

korematsu vs. the united states

Occured in 1944 when Fred Korematsu took the case of all Japaneese Americans being put into 10 interment camps to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled that the relocation was constitutional because it was not based on race, but "military urgency". Shortly afterward, the court did rule in Ex Parte Endo that loyal American citizens could not be held against their will and eventually were released.

southern strategy

Japan's plan to avoid a war of attrition

asia for asians

an idea that the Japan would build their own asian empire

bataan death march

Japanese forced about 60,000 of americans and philippines to march 100 miles with little food and water, most died or were killed on the way

battle of coral sea

A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.

battle of midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

island hopping strategy

WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan

admiral nimitz

United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966)

general macaurthur

American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II

Battle of leyete gulf

McArthur's return to Philippines, Spectacular naval victory, end of Japanese Naval Force

curtis lemay

commander of the B-29s based in the Marianas`


a campaign in the closing days of World War II in the Pacific (April to June 1945)


City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)


Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

the manhattan project

a secret research and development project of the US to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the US the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era

karl marx

founder of modern communism


the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded

communist manifesto

This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.

Russia civil war

Reds vs. Whites - fight for legitimacy of Bolshevik revolution

yalta conference

FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War

postdam conference

This is the conference where Stalin, Truman, and Churchill came together to decide how Germany would be administered. Their goals were to establish order, settle peace treaty issues, and deal with the effects of WWII.

truman doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

the marshall plan

After WWII, this document was said that the US would provide food and economic assistance to any European country that needed helpto recover from WWII. Truman offered it to the Soviet Union but Stalin didn't accept it. It greatly improved many western European countries.

national security act

Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.

Berlin airlift

airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin


an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)

Kam II sung

North Korean leader who wanted a war

Harry Truman

Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb

Syngman Rhee

Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.


a congressional Committee that investigated Commmunist influence inside and outside the US gov. after WWII

the hollywood ten

When Hollywood producers and writers were called to testify, this group of people refused to answer questions about their own political beliefs and those of their colleagues, they were sent to jail for contempt.

alger hiss

A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.

whittaker chambers

TIME magazine editor and former communist. Confessed to spying for the Soviet Union during the 1930's. Named fellow spies, some of them in Roosevelt's cabinet.

ethel and julius rosenberg

were American communists who were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history

klaus fuchs

British physicist who was born in Germany and fled Nazi persecution

joseph mccarthy

United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)

New look policy

Eisenhower cut back on army and navy, relied on air force, and implemented massive retaliation

massive retaliation

Eisenhower's policy; it advocated the full use of American nuclear weapons to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe

suez crisis

Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.

hungarian spring

we ignored requests for help from reformers that wanted freedom

Brown v. board of education

1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

southern manifesto

1956, Opposition of Southern congressmen to Brown v. Board of Education decision

emmett till

Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.

montgomery bus boycott

In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.

rosa parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)

montgomery improvement association

Organization formed by African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1956 to strengthen the bus boycott and to coordinate protest efforts of African Americans; led by Martin Luther King Jr.


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional

Martin Luther King jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Little rock nine

In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.


protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.

freedom rides

a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961


an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality


Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such

diane nash

An African-American woman who was very involved in the civil rights movement, including the SCLC and the founding of SNCC. Nash was involved in planning the Freedom Rides and took over when CORE (who had originally organized the rides) bailed after the riders encountered severe violence, refusing to quit in the face of adversity. Nash also helped organize the voting movement in Selma, Alabama.


Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success

John Lewis

long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike

Bobby Kennedy

JFK's brother and attorney general. Assassinated 1968


35th President of the United States, didn't believe in segregation; president during the Cuban Missile Crisis ....president from 1961 - 1963

flexible response

the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons

bay of pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.


Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)

cuban missile crisis

the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba

the great society

Series of domestic initiatives announced in 1964 by LBJ to "end poverty and racial injustice." They included the Voting Rights Act of 1965, est of the Dept of Housing and Urban Development, Head Start, job-training programs, Medicare and Medicaid expansion, and various community action programs

economic opportunity act

An economic legislation that was part of the Great Society. It created many social programs to help the poor.

Civil Rights act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

head start

a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services

job corps

a work training program for young people between the ages of 16 and 21


Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)


leader of south vietnam

diem bien phu

a Vietnam city that the French lost to the Viet Minh in May of 1954

the domino theory

The fear that if one country falls to communism, then the rest are sure to fall like a row of dominoes.

tonkin gulf incident

1964, US destroyer torpedos fired and Americans called an air force raid on a North Vietnamese boat

operation rolling thunder

bombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy's ability and will to fight

tet offensive

a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.

My Lai

location of the killing of over 400 Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers

anti war movement

student protest that started as the Free Speech movement in California and spread around the world, with common denominator of opposition to war in Vietnam and condemning US presence there. as violation of Viet rights and US imperialism. Lead to growing activism on campuses aimed as social reform etc. Primarily a middle-class movement.


group that branched off of the SDS; advocated terrorism in the US to stop another Vietnam from happening; name came from Bob Dylan lyrics "don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows"; dwindle away after 4 of them die in an explosion in Greenwich Village

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