Only $35.99/year

Terms in this set (55)

NFL scouts take the decision-making skills of quarterbacks very seriously. The league requires that every player in the draft take the Wonderlic intelligence test, which is essentially a shorter version of the standard IQ test. The test is twelve minutes long and consists of fifty questions that get progressively harder as the test goes along.

Here's an example of an easy Wonderlic question: "Paper sells for 2 cents per pad. What will four pads cost?"

And here's a hard Wonderlic question: "Three individuals form a partnership and agree to divide the profits equally. X invests $9,000, Y invests $7,000, Z invests $4,000. If the profits are $4,800, how much less does X receive than if the profits were divided in proportion to the amount in vested?

The underlying thesis of the Wonderlic test is that players who are better at math and logic problems will make better decisions in the pocket. At first glance, this seems like a reasonable assumption. No other position in sports requires such extreme cognitive talents. Successful quarterbacks need to memorize hundreds of offensive plays and dozens of different defensive formations. They need to spend hours studying game tape of their opponents and be able to put that knowledge to use on the field. In many instances, quarterbacks are even responsible for changing plays at the line of scrimmage.

The reason there is virtually no correlation between the results of the Wonderlic and the success of quarterbacks in the NFL is that finding the open man involves a very different set of decision-making skills than solving an algebra problem. While quarterbacks need to grapple with complexity—the typical offensive playbook is several inches thick—they don't make sense of the football field the way they make sense of questions on a multiple-choice exam. The Wonderlic measures a specific kind of thought process, but the best quarterbacks don't think in the pocket. There isn't time/
In the training phase, the stingrays learned the location of their food and how to retrieve it within 2 days. Researchers noted that the female stingrays retrieved food from the right tube more often than the males and the male stingrays retrieved food from the left tube more often than the females. The genders also varied in the style they used to obtain their food. Females would use their undulating fin movements to produce a current that caused the food to move towards them. Alternatively, males would use their bodies to suction water, which would produce a current that caused the food to move towards them. In the problem-solving task, the stingrays learned to locate the food in the eight experimental sessions. The stingrays used the same skills to retrieve food as they did during the training phase; however, researchers indicated the stingrays to use a specific retrieval skill, such as fin movement, suction, or a combination of both, during each of the trials. The females were more likely to bite the apparatus or put it in their mouth. The stingrays retrieved the food faster as the trials continued; however, the latency of finding food increased when there was a long break between attempts. The results showed that four out of five stingrays learned through trial and error, but the one of the male was able to use the cues correctly 100% of the time during the trials.

aditionally, in the testing phase there was one male who began using water-jets blown into the pipe to retrieve the reward.