Chapter 12-14

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Terms in this set (...)

Nomadsim
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.
Yuan Empire
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khu- bilai Khan.
Bubonic Plague
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bac- teria by coughing. Because of its very high mortality rate and the difficulty of prevent- ing its spread, major out- breaks have created crises in many parts of the world.
Il-Khan
A"secondary"or "peripheral" khan based in Persia. The Il-khans' khan- ate was founded by Hülegü, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was based at Tabriz in the Iranian province of Azer- baijan. It controlled much of Iran and Iraq.
Golden Horde
Mongol khan- ate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.
Timur
Member of a promi- nent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timu- rids, maintained his empire for nearly a century and founded the Mughal Empire in India.
Rashid al-Din
Adviser to the Il-khan ruler Ghazan, who converted to Islam on Rashid's advice.
Nasir al-Din Tusi
Persian mathematician and cosmolo- gist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of the planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system.
Alexander Nevskii
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236-1263). He submitted to the invad- ing Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde.
tsar (czar)
From Latin cae- sar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505).
Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Otto- man Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constan- tinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire.
lama
In Tibetan Buddhism, a teacher.
Beijing
China's northern capital, first used as an imperial capital in 906 and now the capital of the Peo- ple's Republic of China.
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the over- throw of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. The later years of the Ming saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline.
Yongle
The third emperor of the Ming Empire (r. 1403- 1424). He sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's borders to trade and travel.
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
End of Ming
Yi
The Yi dynasty ruled Korea from the fall of the Koryo kingdom to the coloni- zation of Korea by Japan.
kamikaze
The "divine wind," which the Japanese credited with blowing Mon- gol invaders away from their shores in 1281.
Ashikaga Shogunate
The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muro- machi Shogunate.
Mongols
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records
of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.
Genghis Khan
The title of Temüjin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the "oceanic" or "universal leader." Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire.
Ibn Battuta
Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual
of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Tropics
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other fac- tors. Temperate zones north and south of the tropics gen- erally have a winter season.
Monsoon
Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in tem- perature between the rapidly heating and cooling land- masses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters. These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultiva- tion of several crops a year.
Delhi Sultanate
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
Mansa Kankan Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt
to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Gujarat
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; the inhabit- ants are called Gujaratis.
Dhows
Characteristic cargo and passenger ships of the Arabian Sea.
Swahili Coast
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning "shores."
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern Afri- can country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone struc- tures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Aden
Port city in the mod- ern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times.
Malacca
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading cen- ter on the Strait of Malacca.
Urdu
A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s.
Timbuktu
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali Empire, Timbuktu became a major terminus of the trans- Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
Latin West
Historians' name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christi- anity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period ca. 500-1500.
Three-Field-System
A rota- tional system for agriculture in which two fields grow food crops and one lies fal- low. It gradually replaced the two-field system in medieval Europe.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid- fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.
Water Wheel
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. It was used in many parts of the world but was especially common in Europe from 1200 to 1900.
Hanseatic League
An eco- nomic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
Guild
In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors,
who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests. Guilds were also important in other societies, such as the Otto- man and Safavid Empires.
Gothic Cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying but- tresses, and large stained- glass windows.
Renassiance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture. Usu- ally divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid- fifteenth century, and a Northern (trans-Alpine) Renaissance, from roughly the early fifteenth to early seventeenth century.
Universities
Degree- granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in the Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities.
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Humanists
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the human- ities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later.
Printing Press
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a wood- block or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1415, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon.
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
New Monarchies
Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits.
reconquest of Iberia
Beginning in the eleventh cen- tury, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.