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Lecture 8 & 9 - learning & memory
Terms in this set (33)
learning and memory are ___ processes with ___.
What are declarative memories?
associations between discontiguous events (memories that you can explicitly state/ cognitively aware)
What are doogie mice
"smarter" mice (perform better on memory tasks). they are created by substituting the GluN2A subunit to GluN2B on NMDARs (open time is longer), and have more LTP
What causes hippocampal LTD?
NMDAR removal and phosphatases
What are the 2/4 brain regions involved in explicit/declaritive memory?
HC/ MTL; diencephalon (mammillary bodies, MD thalamus)
What are the two brian regions involved in implicit (non-declarative) memory?
specific implicit - cerebellum
non-specific/ emotional - amygdala
What type of memory is learning a (native) language?
(can't state all the rules)
What does the story about the guy who had taste aversion to steak when he just had the flu tell us?
there are two separate systems for declarative (cognitively aware) memories (knowing the steak didn't cause his vomiting, but the flu did) and nondeclarative (unconscious/ still had aversion that he couldn't overcome).
what is the definition of learning and memory?
learning: acquisition of info
mem: retention/ retrieval of info
T or F: there is not a separate region where memories are stored.
True. more like memory is stored across a lot of regions in the brain associated with the specific underlying circuit.
What is retrograde vs anterograde amnesia?
retrograde: cant remember stuff before the trauma.
anterograde: cant remember stuff after.
The HC is responsible for ___ memory
What kind of memory was impaired in H.M.?
How did H.M. perform on the eye-blink task?
he did fine. (bc eye blink task tests implicit memory)
what does the eye blink task test for?
T or F: priming is not effected in amnesia (HM or korsakoff).
true. amnesia is explicit. priming task is implicit.
what is the eye blink task?
pair a tone with a puff of air. puff of air causes you to blink (muscle reflex). if you play tone & blink, that shows implicit memory?
describe explicit and implicit memory with stimulus & response.
explicit: associate S-S (cognitive)
implicit: associate S-R (just do it without thinking)
What is Korsakoff's syndrome and what kind of memory does it effect?
diencephalic atrophy due to alcoholism. deficits in explicit/ declarative memory.
Why were so many memory studies unsuccessful in mice when lesioning HC (done after they saw memory effects of HM after HC damage).
because they used the eye blink test, which is implicit memory. (didnt know this/ the difference), and mice did fine on this despite HC lesion.
T or F: declarative memories are flexible and reconfigurable.
How do you test explicit/declarative memory in animals (who cant talk)?
sensory preconditioning. (pair stim A with stim B. pair stim B with response C. then test if stim A results in response C.
can we engineer memory prosthesis?
somewhat yes. you can stim the CA1 neurons when shaffer collaterals are damaged to improve memory in mice with damages shaffer collaterals.
T or F: the HC/MTL are involved in both early phase and late phases of long-term memory.
false. HC/MTL is involved in early phase of long term memory, but not later phases. (consolidation transfers to neocortex?)
explain results of cerebellar lesion on eye blink test.
CS: tone. US: puff of air.
conditioned response: tone-blink (S-R)/ implicit memory.
left cerebellar lesion = no blink when tone in left eye (impaired implicit mem); blink when tone in right eye (in tact implicit memory).
This shows hemisphere specificity & that there is deificit in implicit memory not just motor performance.
How does cerebellum affect heart rate conditioning?
lesion of cerebellum does not hinder heart rate conditioning (emotional/nonspecific implicit memory)
How can you tell if cerebellum is really a crucial part of the circuit for eye blink/ specific implicit memory?
stimulate the inputs (auditory neurons instead of tone, IO instad of air puff) and see if you can train eye blink task with these.
Is the cerebellum the a site of plasticity (for specific implicit memory)?
How can you test if a region is the site of plasticity rather than plasticity happening before or after it?
You cool (inhibit) the cerebellum during the learning phase.
When you stop cooling, does it
1. start like it has never learned before (begin at 0)? (this would imply that it is the site of plasticity)
2. would it start like it has already learned some (non zero)? This would imply that plasticity is before the cerebellum in the circuit.
if 1, the test a region later in circuit with same set up. if this one is 2, the the first region is the site of plasticity.
What kind of plasticity causes implicit mem on eye blink test in the cerebellum and how?
LTD at granule - purkinje cell synapses.
--> decreased purkinje firing (purk. is inhibitory) --> increase cerebellar nuclei output.
What kind of emotional memory does the amygdala encode?
both good and bad.
can fear conditioning induce LTP in the amygdala?
NMDAR antagonism in the amygdala bocks ___ but not ___ in emotional implicit learning.
blocks acquisition but not expression
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