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Drug Abuse Final 1
Drugs & Society 10th ed. ch. 1-9
Terms in this set (184)
In 2008, what percentage of the U.S. population reported cigarette use in the past month?
Which Hispanic group had the highest use of illicit-types of drugs?
Which of the two popular views best reflect the long established relationship between drug use and crime?
Both A &B
A. Criminal behavior develops as a mean to support addiction
B. criminality is inherently linked to the personality of the user and occurs independently from drug use
The active ingredient(s) in tobacco that is addictive, colorless, and a highly volatile alkaloid is __________.
THC is the primary psychoactive ingredient in __________.
Which of the following is not found in Erich Goode's list of drug use types?
The type of crime committed that is often related to drug use involves __________.
__________ generally focus on using other people's drug supplies without maintaining a supply of their own and often waver between the characteristics of chronic types of drug users and experimenter types.
What percentage of full-time workers reported alcohol usage within the past month according to the National Household Surveys?
__________ are known to view their drug use as necessary in order to have fun and they often use drugs in order to escape and postpone personal problems, and relieve stress and anxieties.
Common communicable diseases that spread through contaminated needle sharing include(s) __________.
Which of the following is not a common test for drug use?
Pupil response test
According to Chapter 1, the principal social psychological factor in determining the presence of an individual's drug abuse is __________.
The industrial category with the lowest rates of illicit drug use is found among ____________ workers.
Utilities,educational services,public administration
__________ drugs refer to types of drugs that lead to the use of other more addictive types of drugs.
The drug used to increase muscle mass but whose side effects include heart disease, liver cancer, high blood pressure, septic shock, impotence, genital atrophy, and mood swings is __________.
The phase that is synonymous with addiction, where more of the drug is sought despite the presence of negative physical symptoms is __________.
According to Erich Goode, ___________refers to using licit drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine to achieve a certain mental or psychic state.
Which of the following is not classified as a narcotic drug?
Substances that affect the central nervous system and alter consciousness and/or perception are pharmacologically known as __________.
A person can become infected with the HIV virus in all but the following manner(s) __________.
Saliva in deep kissing
The belief that attitudes about drug use develop from the values and attitudes of other drug users, the norms in the community, subcultures, peer groups, families, and personal experience is known as __________.
__________ is characterized by: excessive use, constant preoccupation with the availability and supply of the drug, refusal to admit excessive use, and reliance on the drug.
Initial Drug Abuse
__________ relationships are characterized as a group of individuals sharing a high amount of intimacy and spontaneity and the members are emotionally bonded.
__________ refer to the chemical messengers released by the neurons for communicating with other cells.
Bejerot's theory, specifically known as __________ theory assumes it is biologically normal to continue a stimulus perceived as pleasurable.
Addiction to pleasure
__________ reinforcement refers to the ratio between reinforcers, both favorable and disfavorable, for sustaining drug use behavior
Which of the following is/are primary factor(s) responsible for drug use?
A. amounts of exposure to drug using peers
B. availability of drugs in the community
C. age of initial use
Theories of addiction that deal with mental or emotional states, often associated with or exacerbated by social or environmental factors, are known as __________ theories.
The trait associated with turning ones feelings inward rather than directing emotions outward is known as __________
The prevailing concept or model of addiction in the United States is the __________.
The view that alcoholism is a __________ dates back to 200 years ago
Types of individuals specifically termed __________ seekers continually seek new or novel thrills in their experiences.
It has been proposed that continual drug use __________ dopamine centers in the brain, which makes experiencing normal pleasure impossible.
__________ refers to a theoretical explanation that places emphasis on how an individual learns patterns of behavior from the attitudes of others, society, and peers.
Social learning theory
It is believed that most drugs with abuse potential enhance pleasure centers by causing the release of __________.
__________ status refers to the primary status position one has in the eyes of others.
One's parents would represent a(n) __________ relationship.
Which of the following risk factors especially applies to adolescent drug use?
misperception of peer norms
A change in personality resulting from marijuana use, characterized by a lack of motivation has been termed by some drug theorists as __________.
Explanations of addiction in terms of genetics, brain dysfunction, and biochemical patterns are termed __________.
genetic and biophysiological theories
__________ in ten drug users work full time.
Which of the following is not one of the phases of addiction?
D. ex- addict
E. relapsing (is correct)
Because of its similarities to mental illness, the American Psychiatric Association has classified severe drug dependence as a __________.
from of psychiatric disorder
__________ can influence the effect alcohol has on the individual.
(All of the above)
other drugs, fatigue or illness , gender
An adaptation to pain and avoidance of reality is called __________.
" double wall" of encapsulation
Which of the following most often occur(s) with extensive use of drugs?
(all of above)
legal defense costs, unlawful behavior, a violation of school policies
In contrast to the primary group, __________ relationships involve mostly segmented relationships that are role specific.
_________ drugs have high abuse potential and are not approved in the United States for medical purposes.
__________ aims to protect drug users by teaching them responsibility.
__________ drugs have high abuse potential but are approved for medical purposes.
If a drug falls into which of the following categories, it will be classified as prescription
(all the above)
not safe for self-medicating because its toxicity
new compound not been shown to be completely safe
the drug is habit forming
The __________ allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or nonprescription.
food, drug,and cosmetics act of 1938
The __________ allows companies to receive tax advantages if they develop drugs that are designed to treat rare diseases and hence are not very profitable
orphan drug law
Which of the following phases generally involves a few patients with a medical problem a drug is intended to treat and is designed to determine both safety and efficacy of a drug?
With the passage of the __________, the decline of patent medicines began.
pure food and drug act of 1906
Which of the following lists steps of drug development in the correct chronological order?
preclinical development , requesting an IND, filling an NDA
__________ attempts to decrease individuals' tendency to use drugs with an emphasis on reformulating values and behaviors.
Demand reduction strategy
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed in response to which of the following events?
a pharmaceutical company marketed an antibiotic dissolved in the toxic solvent ,diethyleneglycol
The Pure Food and Drug Act required:
manufactures to indicate the amt of addicting substances found in each drug product
The __________ served as the foundation and reference for subsequent laws directed at regulating drug abuse issues.
An over-the-counter drug ingredient not generally recognized as safe or effective for the claimed therapeutic indication is classified as __________.
__________ is from the Greek words for flippers, or "seal-shaped limbs."
The __________ established the criteria for determining whether a drug should be classified as prescription or nonprescription.
Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951
What drug was used in Europe as a sedative for pregnant women?
Decreasing the amount of drugs that are carried across U.S. borders is an example of __________.
Which of the following phases generally involves a few healthy individuals, and is designed to determine the safety of a drug?
The __________ divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness.
comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act
The ______ policy of the FDA allows it to review prescription drugs and evaluate their suitability as OTC products.
True or false? The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness
True or false? The Pure Food and Drug Act did not allow the government to stop the distribution of dangerous preparations
Hormones that are able to convert nutrients into tissue mass are called __________.
Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?
androgen-(is correct )
Which of the following is not part of the nervous system?
Which of the following describes a neuronal axon?
a small fiber that conducts electric-like impulses from dendrites to terminal
Which of the following neurotransmitters is classified as a catecholamine?
The nervous system is composed of all but which of the following?
the blood vessels- (is correct)
the spinal cord
Approximately how many neurons are in the brain?
Nicotinic receptors are activated by which of the following transmitters?
Which of the following neurotransmitters is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
Which area of the cortex is the most developed in man?
Which of the following is least likely to be caused by abuse of anabolic steroids?
disrupted sleep pattern
growth of muscle mass
sedation & mellowing of temper- (is correct)
Which structure has been found to be important in maintaining nicotine dependence?
A class of biochemical compounds including norepinephrine and dopamine is called __________.
Agents that antagonize the effects of acetylcholine are called __________.
__________ is the maintenance of internal stability.
Anabolic steroids have been classified in which of the following schedules of the Controlled Substance Act?
Select the incorrect statement
for the most part, drugs of abuse decrease the activity of dopamine in the limbic system
Select the incorrect statement concerning the adrenal glands.
adrenaline is classified as an anabolic steroid
A minute gap between the neuron and target cell across which neurotransmitters travel is called a __________.
Which of the following effects is least likely to be caused by a sympathomimetic drug?
slowed heart rate
__________ are the cells in the nervous system that receive and send neurotransmitter messages.
Which of the following brain regions is most likely to directly regulate the endocrine systems?
What part of the brain controls complex behaviors, processes information, and helps make decisions?
How much does the average brain weigh?
The unpleasant effect that occurs when use of a drug is stopped is called __________.
Chemical alteration of drugs by body processes is called __________.
Alcohol interacts with which of the following?
ALL THE ABOVE
Pharmacologists refer to a perfect drug as a __________.
In determining how drugs affect the body, pharmacologists need to be concerned with __________.
ALL OF THE ABOVE
__________ is a form of withdrawal or a paradoxical effect that occurs when a drug has been eliminated from the body of a person who has become physically dependent.
Which of the following interactions best describes the analgesic effect when aspirin is combined with acetaminophen?
The study of factors that influence the distribution and concentration of drugs in the body is called __________.
Which of the following best describes the concept "margin of safety"?
It is a comparison of dosage for therapeutic versus toxic effects
__________ refers to changes that decrease response to a set dose of a drug.
The capillary membranes that filter substances moving between the cerebral blood vessels and the brain are called the __________.
__________ is the ability of one drug to enhance the effect of another.
________ is the difference between the dose of drug necessary to cause a therapeutic effect versus the dose necessary to cause a toxic effect.
margin of safety
The capacity of a drug to do damage or cause adverse effects in the body is called __________.
The principal forms of drug administration include which of the following?
ALL OF THE ABOVE
You have discovered that you require at least 300 mg of aspirin to get any pain relief. Which of the following terms best describes this phenomenon?
Which of the following best describes synergistic drug interactions?
The presence of one drug enhances the effect of another drug
The approach to detoxifying a person dependent on drugs depends on __________.
the nature of the drug
the severity of dependence
the duration of action of the drug
ALL THE ABOVE
Barbiturates likely cause their depressant effects by enhancing which transmitter?
A "Mickey Finn" was used to make a person temporarily unconscious and contained __________.
Frequent use of benzodiazepines can lead to __________.
ALL THE ABOVE
Women's reaction to barbiturates is most likely to be different than men's because of differences in __________.
Benzodiazepines are classified in which of the following Schedules?
Phenobarbital is classified in which of the following Schedules?
Approximately __________ benzodiazepine compounds are currently available in the United States.
Barbituric acid was synthesized in 1864 by __________.
__________, an ultrashort-acting barbiturate, is often used as anesthesia for minor surgery.
Which of the following categories of depressants is named after a Greek god?
For most of the 1970s, __________ was the top-selling prescription drug.
Drugs often used to relieve symptoms of allergies and motion sickness are called __________.
A CNS depressant can __________.
be used as a sleep aid
cause severe physical dependence
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Depressants are often classified according to __________.
the degree the decrease CNS activity
Which of the following terms refers to drugs used to relieve anxiety?
Benzodiazepines are relatively safe when used for ________
Phenobarbital is often used to treat which of the following conditions?
Which is the manner whereby the body loses fluids through alcohol's diuretic action?
The distillation device or "still" was developed by the __________.
__________ is the process of making alcohol.
__________ is the process by which alcohol concentrations are increased.
One hundred ten proof alcohol has a __________ alcohol content.
Alcoholic beverages contain large amounts of __________.
As a rule, it takes __________ the number of hours as the number of drinks consumed to sober up completely.
__________ is used as an antifreeze whereas __________ is used as an antiseptic.
ethylene glycol; isopropyl alcohol
The concentration of alcohol in wine coolers is usually about __________
The "hair of the dog" method for treating a hangover consists of __________.
taking a drink of the alcohol that caused the hangover
A glass of champagne has a faster onset of action than a glass of wine that contains the same amount of alcohol because __________.
Liver disorders are responsible for __________ of the deaths associated with alcoholism.
The lethal blood alcohol level is __________.
between 0.4% and .6%
The consumable type of alcohol that is the psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages is _____
Drinks stronger than __________ proof may actually inhibit alcohol absorption.
True or false? Alcohol at 70% concentration is actually an effective bactericide, but not recommended for use on open wounds.
_________-income drinkers prefer beer, whereas __________-income drinkers prefer wine.
The slave trade triangle specifically refers to the __________.
trading of rum for slaves, then slaves for molasses, and then returning to New England to make rum
The highest economic cost for the nation regarding alcohol abuse is __________.
In a marriage, alcohol is a primary predictor of __________.
Identify the culture(s) that is/are associated with binge drinking.
A. Polish & Finnish
BOTH A & C
In the United States, most alcohol drinkers drink __________.
The family therapy system developed by Jacques Moreno in which significant interpersonal issues are enacted in a focused setting using dramatic techniques is known as __________.
_________ alcoholics live in a culture that views drinking alcohol as normal and these types of alcoholics spend most of the day continuously sipping, without control and are continuously "buzzed" throughout the day.
Which of the following occurred because of Prohibition?
A. Alcohol diminished the first 2 or 3 yrs
B. Enforcement of law was thwarted by corrupt law enforcement officials
C. Immigrants perceived prohibition as unnecessary and infringement of their cultural beliefs and practices
>D. ALL THE ABOVE
Individuals are classified as __________ drinkers if they consume five or more drinks on one occasion, or consume alcohol on five or more days during a given 30-day period.
A(n) __________ is the most likely to be a binge drinker in college.
American Indian/Alaskan Native male living on campus
The period of heaviest drinking in America began during __________ term in office (1800-1808).
Which of the following would have most likely been a promoter of the temperance movement?
African American church member
With regard to women metabolizing alcohol differently than men, all of the following are significant factors except for __________.
the presence of estrogen and age
A college student who attends a party and binges uncontrollably for the night, but then abstains from alcohol for three weeks until the next party where binging reoccurs is classified by Jellinek as a(n) __________ alcoholic.
Gamma alcoholism contains the characteristics of __________.
being a true disease and progressing from a psychological to physical dependence
Regarding alcohol use, a more important factor that is most likely to exert most influence on a person's view is __________.
Nearly __________ of all college students are binge drinkers.
_________ have the highest rate of current use (non-binge) alcohol consumption.
Yearly, alcohol is responsible for __________ deaths (people dying because of alcohol-related abuse).
The __________ Amendment was responsible for prohibition.
Of the 64% who report drinking alcohol in the U.S., men prefer to drink __________, while women prefer __________.
How long does it take for withdrawals to begin once an addict stops using heroin?
Codeine is most likely to be used to relieve __________.
The narcotics mimic which of the following neurotransmitters?
Talwin is the trade name for _______
Which of the following is the principal therapeutic use of dextromethorphan?
Which of the following is the generic name for Demerol?
Which of the following transmitters likely contributes to the immediate reward caused by narcotic use?
Which of the following is the most common clinical use of narcotics today?
Which of the following is a clinical use for the drug naloxone?
treatment of the person who has overdosed on narcotics
Codeine is a (n) __________.
The synthesis of designer versions of what drug results in the byproduct MPTP?
Which of the following is called "speedballing"?
combining heroin with cocaine
Mainlining refers to _________
Which of the following was the reason for the "opium wars" between China and Great Britain?
the British attacked the Chinese because of the Chinese opposition to the British opium trade in China
Clonidine is used to treat which of the following?
Methadone is effective for about __________.
What is alemtuzumab? and what is its mechanism of action
How do loading and maintenance doses change in renal and/or liver disease?
What type of drug is Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)?
what are the 2 methods of dry granulation
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