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Crawford Questions Review #3
Final exam review
Terms in this set (54)
is a virus that infects and replicates inside a bacterial cell
What are the three ways we classify viruses?
1. the tissue they affect
2. what family they belong too
3. are they DNA or RNA viruses
What are the steps in the Lytic cycle?
2. Penetration (entry)
doesn't cause immediate lysis of the cell
Animal virus replication #1
Bacteriophages: tail fibers attach to cell wall proteins
Animal viruses: attachment sites are plasma membrane proteins and glycoproteins
Animal virus replication #2
Bacteriophages: Viral DNA injected into host cell
Animal viruses: capsid enters by endocytosis or fusion
Animal virus replication #3
Bacteriophages: NOT required
Animal viruses: enzymatic removal of capsid proteins
Animal virus replication #4
Bacteriophages: in Cytoplasm
Animal viruses: in nucleus (DNA viruses) or cytoplasm (RNA viruses)
How come antibiotics won't work on viruses?
because viruses lack the elements with which antibiotics interfere
Antiviral drugs work to...
1. affect viral penetration/uncoating
2. alter genome replication
3. alter the maturation and release phase of replication
What are Oncogenic viruses?
are viruses that cause cancer
What are the 3 Origins of viruses?
1. regressive evolution hypothesis
2. cellular origins hypothesis
3. independent entities hypothesis
they protective us against a virus
What is an Oncogenic virus?
a virus that causes cancer
cause: Orthomyxovirdae family, RNA, pneumotrophic
Know common cold.
Cause: Adenovirus (DNA) or Rhinoviruses (RNA), Picornaviradae, pneumotropic
Know Herpes Simplex.
cause: Herpesviridae, DNA, derematropic
Know Chicken pox.
cause: Varicella-zoster, Herpesviridae, DNA, dermotropic
Know Measles (rubella).
cause: Paramyxoviridae family, RNA, dermotropic
Know Rubella ( German measles, 3-day measles).
Cause: Togaviridae, RNA, dermotropic
Cause: Paramyxoviridae, RNA, dermotropic
Know Infectious Monoucleosis.
Cause: Epstein-Barr Herpesviridae, DNA, viscerotropic
Know Hepatitis A.
(short incubation) Cause: Picornaviridae, RNA, viscerotropic
Know Hepatitis B.
(long incubation) Cause: Hepadnaviridae, DNA, viscerotropic
Cause: Retroviridae, RNA, viscerotropic
Cause: Picornaviridae, RNA, neurotropic
Know West Nile Virus.
Cause: West nile virus flaviviridae, RNA, neurotropic
Nutritional type: Chemoheterotroph (preformed organics, ex. humans)
Multicellularity: all, except yeast
Cellular arrangement: unicellular, filaments, fleshy (ex. mushrooms)
Food acquisition: absorptive, extra cellular digestion
Characteristic features: sexual and asexual spores
Embryo formation: none
Whats the difference between fungal spores and bacterial spores?
Bacterial spores are a dominant form of bacteria, while fungal spores are for reproduction.
Difference between fungi and bacteria?
Cell type: Fungi (Eukaryotic) Bacteria (Prokarytoic)
Cell membrane: Fungi (sterols present) Bacteria (sterols absent, except in Mycoplasma)
Cell wall: Fungi (glucans, mannas, chitin, no peptiglycan) Bacteria (Peptiglycan)
Spores: Fungi (sexual and asexual, reproductive spores) Bacteria (Endospores are not for reproduction, some asexual spores)
Metabolism: Fungi (limited to heterotrophic, aerobic, faculatively anaerobic) Bacteria (Heterotrophic, autotrophic, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, anaerobic
Fungi are eukaryotic but differ from plants by, 4 ways.
1. lack chlorophyll- photosynthesis
2. have the carbohydrate chitin in cell walls while plants have cellulose
3. not truly multicellular like plants, because of yeast
4. heterotrophic can not make their own food while plants are autotrophic, self feeders
What does Dimorphic mean?
2 forms, these organisms take a yeast form in the human body and a filamentous form when cultivated in the laboratory , usually pathogenic
Whats the difference between Septate hyphae and Nonseptate hypae?
Septate hypae have cross-wall, inside the strands while Nonseptate hyphae doesn't have the cross walls, they just have many nuclei in a common cytoplasm.
What are three things that influence fungal growth?
1. Oxygen (aerobic)
2. Temperature (grows best are room temperature)
3. pH (between 5-6)
Asexual reproduction, list 4.
1. sporangiospores (produced in sacs or vessels, very light weight)
2. conidia (supportive structures, light weight and unenclosed)
3. arthrospores (hyphae breaks apart and a new one forms)
4. blastospores (building of a new parent cell)
What is an advantage of sexual reproduction?
the possible evolution of new genetic forms better adapted to the environment that the parent (offspring maybe stronger)
Define mitosporic group.
a group where fungi is placed if it lacks a recognized sexual cycle
bread mold, molds that grow on spoiled fruit with high sugar content and on acidic vegetables
called Sac fungi, make up 75% of all fungi including yeast, penicillins, beer, and wine
Reproduce basidiospores (mushrooms) which have basidia inside them
any fungal infection of the body is a mycosis, long lasting, and grows slowly
located along hair shafts and in superficial epidermal cells
deep within the body, usually caused by soil organisms, inhalation is the route of transmission, not contagious from human to human (only good thing)
occur beneath the skin from saprophytic fungi that live in soil and on vegetation, occurs from punctures
generally harmless in its normal habitat, pathogenic in a host who is immune compromised
dermatophytes are fungi that colonize the hair, nails and outer layer of the epidermis, grow on keratin, known as tineas or ringworm
throughout the body
under skin as with a puncture wound
normal flora that can become pathogenic
Superifical mycoses- Dermatomycoses
Tinea pedis-athlete's foot, Tinea captitis-ringworm of the head
cause: 1. Trichophyton sp. 2. Microsporum sp. 3. Epidermophyton sp.
Transmission: direct contact/ with fomites
Detection: grow skin on SAB agar
Treatment: Lamisil - nucleic acid synthesis (all increase the pH)
Prevention: avoid sharing body products
Coccidiomycosis - San Joqauin fever, valley fever, desert rhenumatism
Cause: Coccodiodes immitis
Symptoms: respiratory problems, can be fatal
Detection: SAB arthtrospores
Treatment: amphotericin B
Cause: crytococcus neoformans
Transmission: soil, pigeon droppings- lungs
Symptoms: headaches, stiff neck, paralysis, death
Detection: tissues-capsules (use India ink stain)
Treatment: amphotericin B
Most dangerous fungal infection, one of the causes of death in AIDS patients
Cause: Candida albicans
Transmission: normal flora of skin, mouth, vagina, GI tract
Symptoms: varies depends on the location; in mouth-milk-white oral cavity, vagina- white discharge, GI tract- eat yogurt
Detection: SAB/ cornmeal agar-blastospores (enrich the agar)
Treatment: nystatin, diflucan, ect.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch. 24 Crawford Questions
Ch. 14 Viral Diseases
Cont. chapter 4
Ch. 14 Viruses
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