55 terms

Earth Science 11 Chapter 30

Dawe's final exam list words are: fusion, photosphere, corona, magnitude (both types), sunspot, black hole, nebula, supernova
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Big Bang Theory
States that approximately 12 to 15 billion years ago, the formation of the universe began with a fiery explosion.
Star Cluster
Can be open or globular
Nebula
-Birth place of stars
-A cloud of gas and dust in space
Spiral Galaxy
-Milky Way is an example
-Many long "arms" spiraling out from a center core made up of stars that formed a long time ago
Elliptical Galaxy
-Contains some of the oldest stars in Universe
-Ranges in shape from a perfect sphere to an elongated but flattened ellipse
Irregular Galaxy
Made up of a mix of new and old stars
Interstellar Matter
Fills space, made up of gas (mostly hydrogen) and dust
Neutron Star
Not even gravity can escape this
High Mass Star
may take trillions of years to cool down
Low Mass Star
Red dwarf
Intermediate Mass Star
The sun is an example
Astronomers
scientists who study the stars and other objects in space
Celestial bodies
all objects seen in the sky (the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets)
Cosmological red shift
all bodies are moving away, further the faster
red shift
an object in the universe that is moving away from earth.
electromagnetic radiation
energy that is carried, or radiated, in the form of waves; microwaves, radio waves, and X rays
Spectroscope
optical instrument that acts like a prism to separate light into it's basic component colours
black hole
remnant of a star that is so dense that nothing, not even light, can escape its gravity field
Doppler effect
An observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
star
A celestial body of hot gases that radiates energy derived from thermonuclear reactions in the interior
Supernova
the brilliant explosion of a dying supergiant star
Fusion
the process in which the nuclei of atoms fuse together to form larger single atoms, creating an enormous amount of energy
Asteroid
any of numerous small celestial bodies composed of rock and metal that move around the sun (mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter)
Comet
(astronomy) a relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit
Axis
an imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and its North and South Poles
moon
any natural satellite of a planet
planet
any of the celestial bodies (other than comets or satellites) that revolve around the sun in the solar system
revolution
the motion of Earth as it orbits the sun
rotation
the motion of Earth as it spins on its axis from west to east
solar system
a group of planets circling one or more stars
Solar Prominence
A huge loop of cooler gas that erupts thousands of miles from the chromosphere, suspended gracefully in space by the sun's powerful magnetic field
Sunspot
a cooler darker spot appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere
Solar flare
a sudden eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun's surface
Corona
the outermost region of the sun's atmosphere
Chromosphere
a gaseous layer of the sun's atmosphere (extending from the photosphere to the corona) that is visible during a total eclipse of the sun
Photosphere
the visible surface of the sun
Solar wind
a stream of electrically charged particles produced by the sun's corona
Light-year
light distance travels in one year (9.5 trillion km)
parallax
the apparent displacement of an object as seen from two different points that are not on a line with the object
triangulation
a trigonometric method of determining the position of a fixed point from the angles to it from two fixed points a known distance apart
Axis Tilt
tilted 23.5, reason why we have seasonal changes
Constellations
a group of stars that forms a shape or pattern
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
Ptolemy
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
lunar eclipse
the earth interrupts light shining on the moon
solar eclipse
the moon interrupts light from the sun
lunar month
29.5 days
satellite
man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon
Hubble
United States astronomer who discovered that (as the universe expands) the speed with which nebulae recede increases with their distance (1889-1953)
shooting star
a streak of light in the sky at night that results when a meteoroid hits the earth's atmosphere and air friction causes the meteoroid to melt or vaporize or explode
Black hole
Remnant of a star that is so dense that nothing, not even light, can escape its gravity field.
Apparent magnitude
how bright a star appears to be
absolute magnitude
the brightness an object would have if it were placed at a distance of 10 pc...how bright the stars would appear at equal distances from an observer