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Psychology
Experimental Psychology
Chapter 8 (In-Chapter-Quiz)
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Which of the following is a paired design to find out how much Neuroaid improves IQ?
a. one group of students drank Neuroaid and another group drank water; all students took an IQ test.
b. One group of students took an IQ test immediately after drinking Neuroaid and on a different day, another version of the same IQ test immediately after drinking water.
c. One group of students took an IQ test after drinking Neuroaid and their scores were compared to national norms.
d. all of the above
b.
In a paired design, two conditions are compared within/between participants, and the IV is a within-group/between-groups variable. With independent groups, two conditions are compared within/between participants, and the IV is a within-group/between-groups variable.
within; within-group; between; between-groups
In a paired design, the effect size is ____. How is it calculated?
Mdiff, calculated as the mean of all the N differences or as (M2-M1).
For a paired design, the variability component for the CI on the difference is ____ which is the SD of the _____ ______.
sdiff; the difference scores.
Paired design studies usually give more/less precise estimates than independent group studies, meaning that the CI is usually shorter/longer. A paired design is especially advantageous when sdiff is smaller/larger, the CI on the difference is shorter/longer, and the correlation is smaller/larger.
more; shorter; smaller; shorter; larger
A figure shows the means and CIs for conditions A and B. The length of the CI on the effect size is _______ if the design is independent groups, and is _____ if it's a paired design.
a little longer than either of the separate CIs for A and B; in most cases shorter than either of those CIs.
For paired design, using d may allow us to
a. compare results from measures of various underlying characteristics.
b. compare results from different measure of the same underlying characteristic.
c. understand a result expressed in original units.
d. all of the above.
d.
For the paired design, the basic formula for d is d = ES/SD. The ES is _____
Mdiff
The SD is called the standardizer. For the paired design we use _____ as standardizer.
sav
If a value of d reported for a paired design looks suspiciously large, what error might the researches have made?
Use Sdiff instead of Sav as standardizer
Consider the variability component used to calculate the CI, and the standardizer for d. For independent groups, these are the same/different. For the paired design, these are the same/different.
same;different
For the paired design, when interpreting d,
a. among other things, consider how big a practical difference the effect makes.
b. it doesn't matter whether you use d or dunbiased.
c. the CI is likely to be long, indicating great uncertainty.
d. to be on the safe side, also analyze the data as if the groups were independent.
a.
For a pretest-posttest study, you need _______ t test, not the ______ t test.
paired; independent groups
When analyzing a paired design using the NHST approach, the null hypothesis is usually that ______.
that the population mean difference is zero
In a paired design, how are the degrees of freedom (df) calculated?
(N-1)
In a pretest-posttest study, if all participants show zero change from pretest to posttest, what is Mdiff? What is t? What is the result of the t test?
0, 0, do not reject the null hypothesis
Considering the paired design, the overlap rule to compare two CIs
a. involves the CI on the difference, not just the other two CIs.
b. is not applicable for this design.
c. states that CIs overlapping moderately corresponds to p = .01 approximately.
d. is the same as that for independent groups.
b
For the paired design, the p value to test δ = 0 is the same as/different from the p value to test the null hypothesis in original units.
same as
A CI on d is an interval estimate of the _______ ________ in the _____, for which the symbol is _______.
effect size; population; δ .
What variability component do you use for the t test
a. for the paired design?
b. for independent groups?
c. How much does a GRE prep course improve GRE scores? To investigate, 20 students took the GRE before and after completing a prep course. The average (Posttest- Pretest) difference was 10 points. The average standard deviation (Sav) was 50. What is Cohen's d? Can you conclude that the prep course caused the difference?
d = ES/SD = 10/20 = .20; no because random assignment was not possible and carryover effects may have contributed to the difference
What is a carryover effect?
A carryover effect is any influence of the first measurement in a paired design on the second, for example practice at taking the test.
To minimize carryover effects, the order of administering different levels of the IV can be varied across participants. This is know as _____
counterbalancing
Parallel forms of a test are:
a. used with independent groups to increase the precision of estimation.
b. different version of the test tailored for different levels of the IV.
c. averaged to give a better estimate of an individual participant's performance.
d. used with paired design to reduce carryover effects.
d.
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