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storage and delivery of medical gasses
Terms in this set (140)
1. colorless tasteless transparent gas
2. STPD- 1.429 g/L
3. Slightly heavier than air
4. accelerates combustion
5. produced by a fractional distillation
1. atmospheric room air is colorless odorless naturally occuring
2. 20.95 oxygen
3. produced by filtering and compressing atmosphere air
What high flow air system?
100 l/min at standard working pressure of 50 pounds per square inch gage Psig for all equipment in use
small compressors are used to make air at home
no more than 50 PISG
1. colorless and odorless with a specific gravity of 1.52 mmHG
2. 1.5 heavier than air
3. does not support combustion or maintain animal life
diagnostic purpose and ECMO
Carbon dioxide C02
How is C02 produced?
heating lime stones
1. STPD must be mixed with 20% 02 for therapy
2. odorless, tasteless non flammable
3. can cause suffocation and death cannot support life its self
How is helium produced?
1. colorless gas with a slightly sweet odor and taste used in dental offices
1. colorless gas with slightly sweet odor and taste
2. anesthetic agent
3. supports combustion
4. laughing gas euphoric sensation
5. dental offices
Nitric oxide N20
1. mixed with 20% 02 to be made
2. manage severe cases of airway obstruction
3. can improve air flow through constricted air passages
4. delivering low fi02 airflow through severely stenotic upper and low airway lesions
what gas is slightly sweet odor and taste?
What is the STPD for oxygen
What is the STPD for helium
What is considered laughing gas where it is commonly seen?
What is nitric oxide medically indicated for?
1. vasodilation in NICU
2. adult pulmonary hypertension
3. hypoxic respiratory failure in near term infants
What can happen to high exposure of nitric oxide?
Which gas is considered a lab gas?
Which gas is used as a therapeutic gas?
Which gas is and anesthetic gas and combined with anesthesia during surgery?
What is an example of a flammable gas that burn readily potentially explosive?
What is non flammable gas?
1. does not burn readily
2. supports combustion
Which of the gasses do support combustion?
1. Nitrous oxide
Which gas does not support combustion and is 1.5 times heavier than air?
What is used for diagnostic purposes and in ECMO equipment?
C02 Carbon dioxide
What gas is non flammable and supports combustion?
how is helium produced?
what is the lightest of all gasses?
what gas is lower density than air?
What gas support combustion
how is N20 produced?
produced by thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate
What gasses do not support life?
What is liquefaction?
It isolates gases through a process of compression an temperature changes
what color is the oxygen (02)
What is the color for C02 carbon dioxide?
What is the color for N20 Nitrous oxide?
What is the color for cyclopropane?
What color is Ethylene oxide?
What color is C02/02 mixture?
gray and green
what color is nitrogen (N2)
What color is (N0) nitric oxide?
What color is air?
yellow and black
What color is nitrogen oxygen?
What is the color for He-02
brown and green
What is the critical temperature for oxygen?
-118.6 degrees C
181.4 degrees F
1. Air filtered of all pollutants, water, and C02
·2. Purified air is then liquefied by compression and cooled by rapid expansion
3· Resulting mixture of liquid 02 and nitrogen is heated slowly in a distillation tower
4. Nitrogen, with its boiling point of 195.8 degrees C escapes first followed by trace gasses
·5. Remaining liquid o2 is transferred to specially insulated cryogenic storage cylinders
6. O2 is produced at 99.0% purity through these methods (FDA)
What is the process of fractional distillation
What is the most common and least expensive method for producing 02?
What is the method used for fractional distillation?
Physically separating 02 from the air and produces large amount
When oxygen is produced what is the percentage at which it must be pure and purity is approved by who?
2. 99% purity
What is the boiling point of nitrogen?
How is 02 transferred?
special insulated cryogenic storage cylinder
· Outside air is pulled in through canisters of inorganic sodium aluminum silicate pellets
· Separates the air from other elements and singles out oxygen
· Pellets absorb, nitrogen, trace gasses and water vapor from the air
· Then a vacuum is used to pull ambient air through a semi permeable plastic membrane
· Membrane allows O2 and water vapor to pass through at a faster rate than does nitrogen from ambient air
· Produces 90-96% pure oxygen
What is the sieve system and what is canisters filled with?
1. separates a mixture by pulling through a mesh, perforations, or a chemical structure
2. silicates pellets
This sieve system produces oxygen at what percentage?
What powered by electricity to generate oxygen?
What are the flow rates of an oxygen concentrator?
1-10 liters per minute
How is medical grade air made?
Produced by filtering and compressing atmospheric air
What is the standard working pressure of a high flow rate system?
50 pounds per square inch gauge (pig for all equipment use
What is used at home and is what the unrestricted flow?
What is the sieve system and what is it canisters filled with?
separates mixture by pulling through a mesh perforations or chemical structure
Sieve system produces oxygen at what percent/
What powered by electricity to generate oxygen
What are the flow rates of a oxygen concentrator?
1 to 10 liters per minute
How is medical grade air made?
produced by filtering and compressing atmospheric air
What is the standard working pressure of high flow rate system?
50 pounds per square inch gauge for all equipment in use
What is used at home and what is the unrestricted flow
What cylinder are made from carbon steel?
DOT 3 A
Who regulates what the cylinders are made from fabrication method?
1. tranport DOT
2. interstate commerce commission
What cylinder is manfactured with steel alloy tempered for higher strength?
DOT 3 AA
WHAT IS THE LETTER STAMPING ON. THE CYLINDER??
filling pressure (PSI)
How often is a safety test performed on a cylinder?
5 to 10 years
What does EE followed by a number stand for?
Elastic Expansion of the cylinder in cubic centimeters under the test conditions
What does a * mean on a cylinder?
It will be next to the test date indicating DOT approval for 10 year testing
What do they check when they perform testing on cylinders
3. Wall stress
What is done during testing that keeps the performers safe?
1. they color code the cylinders
To what pressure is a gas cylinder filled if all safety tests been passed?
What does a + sign stand for on a cylinder?
for filling to 10% greater than its service pressure
When testing is performed what are the cylinders pressurized to and give an example?
1. 5/3 service pressure
2. cylinder approved with a 2015 psi can be filled with approximately 2200 psi
What are considered small cylinder?
(E, D, B, A, DD, BB, AA)
Small cylinders have what type of valve?
What types of safety valves are present on medical gas cylinders? where can they be found? what is there purpose?
They are inside the valves and stem
breath out any pressure release and release their pressure
What type of safety system does small cylinders have?
pin indexed safety system
What type of safety system do large cylinders have?
American standard Safety system ((ASSS)
What do all cylinders do to prevent fire?
High pressure relief valves
What type of metal disk will rupture and vent internal tank contents at a designated/ specific pressure
What safety system melts at a specific temperature?
What valve open and vents gas from the cylinder and prevents pressure from becoming too high?
spring loaded valve
What is located on every floor of an acute care facility and what is it purpose?
1. zone valves
2. you can push or activate these valves in case of a fire turning off the main system
E clyinder factor
D Cylinder factor
What is G cylinder factor?
What is the H and K cylinder factor?
What does the cylinder factor determines?
1. gas flow
2. cylinder size
3. cylinder pressure
how much does 1 liter of oxygen weigh
How much does 1 liter of liquid produce?
860 liters of gaseous 02
amount of gas in a cylinder?
liquid weight *860/2.5
what is the duration of gas in cylinder (L)/flow (L/min)
Duration of gas
liquid weight *860/2.5lb/L
Amount of gas in the cylinder
What agency enforces the storage and safety recommendation and guideline?
1. National protection agency (NFPA)
2. Compressed gas association (CGA)
How should gas be stored?
· In racks in an upright manner
· Chain cylinders to a wall
· In 1 hour fire resistant rating that is well ventilated
· With protective cylinder caps on them if not being used
· Cool well vented rooms
How can you keep gas cylinders safe during tranpsortation
· Cylinder carts with a securing mechanism
· Keep protective cylinder caps in place
· Try not to strike other cylinders or avoid damaging the safety devices, valve stems or cylinder by itself
· Avoid dropping, dragging or rolling cylinders
· Do not transport cylinders for use that are not appropriately labeled
Safety cylinder use?
· Always secure cylinders at the patient's bed side
· Never cover a cylinder valves or regulators that need repair
· Do not alter or deface cylinder markings or color
· Never place cylinders near sources of heat
· Never secure cylinder to movable objects unless the object has an apparatus that can contain the cylinder safety
· When 02 is use outside the hospital always post a no smoking sign in the entrance to room
· Cylinder valve slightly to remove dust and dirt before attaching the regulator
· Make sure no one is in front of the cylinder nozzle when cracking the valve
· Do not use flammable materials especially oil or grease on the regulator cylinder fittings or valves. Including hands, rags or glove
· Do not stand a Cylinder upright without securing it first.
how much gas do bulk systems hold?
20,000 cubic feet of gas including unconnected reserves
What type of gas do bulk systems contain?
gaseous or liquid form
· Less expensive over time
· Less prone to interrupt service
· Allows you not to have to store gases
· Operate at low pressure
Advantages of bulk system
What type of cylinders do manifold systems or bank Carry?
What are the 2 types of bank or sides ?
2. reserve when used up the primary gets low an alarm goes off and it switches
A cylinder supply system has 3 types of banks what are they?
What temperature should liquid 02 maintain to?
1. -181.4 degrees F
2. 118.6 degrees C
What agency sets standards for the design construction placement and bulk of oxygen system?
2. Local and fire and building codes
What safety system is used for threaded high pressure connection?
Asss (American Standard safety system)
What safety system uses part of the ASS but only applies to outlet of small cylinder?
Piss or pin index safety system
diameter index system (DISS)
Quick connect safety system (QCSS)
What pin index hole size for oxygen
What is the pin index hole position for air
What system is for high pressure?
ASS and PISS
What system is low pressure?
1. Diss (less than 200) diameter indexed safety system
What do diss connections consist of?
1. externally threaded boy
2. corresponding hex nut
prevents accidental interchange of low pressure
What do connect systems do?
Allow quick connect access to oxygen air and suction outlets
What devices do the quick connect system utilize?
1. oxygen flow meter
2. air flow metere
3. suction regulator
4. 50 PSI direct connect for CPAP devices ventilator
What is the goal of a reducing valve
A reduction in gas pressure
how do we control of gas flow to a system?
what is a multiple reducing valve?
reduces pressure in two or more steps
either be preset or adjustable
can be combine with a flow meter device as a true regulator
what is a fixed orifice variable pressure device?
What do you use with bourdon gage
Adjustable pressure reducing valve
**What is advantage of using a bourdon gage regulator
gravity does not affect the position of the gauge
What is an example when we would use a bourdon gage regulator?
when transporting a patient
What is classified as a variable orifice constant flowmeter device? **
Thorpe tube flow meter
What is used to measure pressure?
On a flow meter how is the scale read
Liters per minute
What at the the two basic designs of a flow meter?
· Because the tube falsely shows a flow lower than that actually delivered to the patient
· Increase the user attaches flow restricting equipment to the meter downstream resistance increases which increases pressure in the flow tube
· Adding downstream pressure increases the pressure in the flow tube above atmospheric pressure.
· Higher pressure of gas flows through a given restriction than at the atmospheric pressure so that the float at a given height on the scale indicates more gas than actually occurring.
Why is uncompensated flow meter rarely used
Always plugged into 50 psig source
The position of the float in a Thorpe tube flowmeter is based on a balance between the force of gravity and the pressure difference (p2-p1) across it and determined by the variable sized orifice between the float and the tube wall
Flow resistance around the float decreases and pressure difference again equilibrates with gravity
Float position stabilizes at higher level proportionate to the greater flow around it.
Throbe meter how does it work?
What is the pin index hole size for oxygen
What is the pin index hole position for air?
What meter is used with a reducing valve?
Bourdon type flow gage
What is the combination of a flow meter with a reducing valve called?
What do we use if we need to control flow and gas to a patientt?
Large threaded valve outlet
Post valve for yoke connector
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