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Valvular - Review for final
Terms in this set (123)
Valvular heart disease is either....? (Two answers)
Congenital or acquired
Valvular stenosis is associated with an ______ valve.
Regurgitation is associated with a ______ valve.
Laminar flow is usually associated with?
Stenosis is associated with?
True or False. When a normal valve is open, the pressure on either side of the valve is effectively equal so there is not a significant pressure across the open valve.
What is the only way to calculate a mean pressure gradient?
Trace the velocity with VTI.
The pressure half time technique is used for measuring the MVA and the TVA using the?
Tricuspid valve inflow and mitral valve inflow.
In an apical 5 chamber, the aortic valve stenosis is determined by blood flow?
Below the baseline.
In an apical 5 chamber, aortic regurgitation is determined by blood flow.....?
Above the baseline.
In the PLAX view, aortic regurgitation is determined by blood flow.....?
Unable to determine in view.
What is the most common cause of mitral stenosis?
The murmur associated with tricuspid stenosis is?
A diastolic rumble that varies with respiration and has an opening snap.
Ascites, abdominal swelling, jaundice, peripheral edema, and right upper quadrant pain are associated with tricuspid stenosis. True or False?
A congenital anomaly associated with tricuspid stenosis is?
The most common cause off tricuspid stenosis is?
Patients with tricuspid stenosis are at no greater risk for endocarditis than the normal population. True or False.
_________ is a narrowing/thickening/obstruction of the tricuspid valve that impedes diastolic flow traveling from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
With _______ the tricuspid valve will be displaced into the right ventricle.
True or False. A pacemaker wire can be a cause of tricuspid stenosis.
Jugular venous distension is a possible complication of severe tricuspid regurgitation and pulmonary hypertension. True or False.
Calculate the RVSP on a patient with a tricuspid regurgitation velocity maximum of 3 m/s and a normal RAP of 10 mmHg.
If a patient has an RVSP of 46 mmHg, what is the severity?
What is the range for a normal IVC measurement according to Dewitt?
1.2 - 2.1 cm.
What is the range for a normal hepatic vein according to Dewitt?
.5 to 1.1 cm.
What view would you most likely find the hepatic vein?
The murmur associated with pulmonic stenosis is?
Harsh systolic ejection murmur heard at the left upper sternal border.
What is the murmur that is associated with pulmonic regurgitation?
What is the normal range for the A wave dip associated with a normal pulmonic valve?
What is the most common form of acquired pulmonic stenosis?
Carcinoid heart disease.
Tetralogy of Fallot is commonly associated with pulmonic regurgitation. True or False?
A vibratory movement or resonance heard through a stethoscope is known as?
Another term used for subvalvular pulmonic stenosis is?
Infundibular pulmonic stenosis.
A pulmonic stenosis ejection jet of < 3 m/s is considered?
________ is the result of an incompetent pulmonic valve that permits backward diastolic flow from the pulmonic artery through the pulmonic valve, while it is closed, into the right ventricle.
Pulmonic regurgitation only happens in ventricular diastole. True or False.
Trivial/mild pulmonic regurgitation presents in approximately _________ % of patients.
LA volume overload and pressure due to MR may lead to a dilated LA. True or False?
If MR is present with MVP, the LA dimensions must be emulated. What is the normal size range of the LA in 2D?
2.3 to 3.8 cm.
In what heart cycle is the LA commonly measured?
In most cases, there will be a ______ directed jet of MR is the anterior mitral valve leaflet prolapses.
There is a known link between MVP an connective tissue disorders. True or False.
Individuals with skeletal abnormalities may be prone to have MVP. True or False.
When a normal valve is open, the pressure on either side of the valve is effective ______?
Systolic flutter of the AMVL may be caused when the AI jet strikes the AMVL. True or False.
Long standing aortic regurgitation may cause a decrease in left ventricular function and eventually CHF. True or False?
A mechanical prosthesis is selected for?
Children and young adults.
All prosthetic heart valves are inherently stenotic. True or False?
When a patient's pulmonic valve annulus and trunk are excised and relocated to the aortic position, this is known as?
The _____ procedure is when a patient's pulmonic valve annulus and trunk are excised and relocated to the aortic position.
____________of the prosthetic valve occurs when the structures in the sewing ring become loose or break off.
What are the two main types of prosthetic heart valves?
Mechanical and bioprosthetic.
To transfer a valve from one person to another is considered a?
To transfer a native valve from one location to another on the same person is considered a?
Porcine is what type of animal species?
A bovine is considered what type of animal species?
Mild regurgitation of a new prosthetic valve is considered insignificant. True or False?
A perivalvular leak of a new prosthetic valve is insignificant. True or false?
The most common brand name of the ball and cage mechanical valve is called?
Which of the following is considered a heterograft?
Carpentier-Edwards bovine pericardium.
What mechanical valve creates a major and minor orfice?
Mechanical bileaflet disc.
Prosthetic valves will usually have a transvalvular gradient or physiologic regurgitation. True or False.?
______ is a fibrous growth of tissue that may adhere to a mechanical heart valve.
Native valves are always replaced for stenosis, regurgitation, infection, or aortic dissections with mild aortic regurgitation. True or False?
If there is a narrowing within the coronary artery(s), and the demand placed on the heart exceeds the supply of oxygenated blood to the walls of the heart, ______ will occur.
________ is a minimally invasive procedure to replace a narrowed aortic valve that fails to open properly. This procedure is done through the use of a catheter.
The units commonly used for valve areas are?
What are the units for velocity that are commonly used in echo?
What are the units used for pressure in echo?
TAVR is preferred in high risk surgical patients in attempt to improve their quality of life. True or False?
______ is developed from a human aortic valve or dura matter and appears very similar to a native valve.
The most common cause of mitral valve stenosis in the United States is associated with?
Percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy is never a treatment option for severe mitral valve stenosis. True or False?
A term that refers to blood sputum is?
What is a pressure half time associated with severe mitral valve stenosis?
What is a normal mitral valve area?
Incomplete closure of the aortic valve cusps is a possible anatomical reason for aortic regurgitation. True or False?
Systolic flutter of the AMVL may be caused when the aortic regurgitation jet strikes the AMVL. True or False?
What is a pressure half time associated with severe aortic regurgitation?
Which coronary artery is responsible for the majority of oxygenated blood to the apex of the heart?
What method is best used to evaluate the aortic valve area in the short axis?
What is a normal pressure half time for the mitral valve?
A common or normal peak velocity of the aortic regurgitation velocity is approximately?
Angioplasty is a preferred treatment option for aortic regurgitation. True or False?
An Austin-Flint murmur is also known as?
Low-pitched, mid-diastolic rumble at the apex.
The RAP is normally estimated at?
What are the two main categories of aortic stenosis?
Congenital and degenerative.
LA volume overload and pressure due to MR may lead to a dilated LA. True or false?
M-mode may be helpful in evaluating the effects of MR on the heart walls and chambers. True or False?
LV volume overload patterns always involves hypokinesis of the LV walls with LV dilatation. True or False?
Often with MR, there is hypocontractility of the LV. What principle applies?
What is a common cause of AOV notching (partial mid-systolic closure?)
What are the two most common cardiac windows when evaluating the AOV with m-mode?
PSAX and PLAX.
The normal MR peak velocity is?
Significant MR may effect the pulmonary venous inflow patters in two ways. What are the two most common?
Decreased S wave and increased D wave.
To have RVH, the walls of the RV measure?
If the MR het extends just beyond the mitral valve leaflets with CFD, it is considered to be?
If the MR jet extends beyond the middle-back wall of the LA with CFD, it is considered to be?
What cardiac murmur is often present with MR?
Holosystolic murmur that radiates to the axilla.
Long standing MR may lead to pulmonary hypertension, CHF, and LA thrombus. True or False?
In most cases, there will be a ______ directed jet of MR if the ______ prolapses.
The exact cause of MVP is unknown. True or False?
Most patients with MVP are symptomatic. True or False?
Individuals with skeletal abnormalities may be prone to have MVP. True or False?
What is a normal EPSS value?
What are the two most common causes of valvular heart disease?
The stenotic valve has ______ pressure before the stenosis, and ______ after the stenosis.
Stenosis and regurgitation can both lead to dilated chambers. True or False?
Systolic doming of the anterior mitral valve leaflet creates a hockey stick appearance with mitral stenosis? True or False?
With MS, the LA pressure decreases so the LA empties slower. True or False?
The extent of left atria dilitation is dependent upon the degree of MS. True or False?
With long standing MS, there may be some of the following complications except....?
Chiari network enlargement.
Pulmonary hypertension may occur with long standing MR. True or False?
_________ septal wall motion occurs when the walls do NOT expand and contract simultaneously. At times, they appear to move parallel to another.
M-mode of the MV when dealing with MS displays all of the following except?
Increased leaflet excursion.
_______ is the time required for the peak gradient across the MV to reduce to one half.
Pressure half time.
What is normal pressure half time for the mitral valve?
Severe MS pressure half time is?
> or equal to 220 ms.
MR usually accompanies MS. True or False?
What is the murmur that is associated with MS?
Diastolic rumble with opening snap.
The flatter the MS waveform, the more severe the stenosis is. True or False?
A-fib is not associated with long-standing MS. True or False?
What are the two papillary muscles of the left ventricle?
Anterolateral and posteromedial.
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