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What are the differentiations between COLD and FLU symptoms?
What is the cold symptoms pathway?
Sore throat--> sneezing--> dry cough--> discharge--> productive cough
Rhinorhhea can be treated with _________
Congestion can be treated with ______ and ________ __________
nasal and oral decongestants
Cough can be treated with _______, ________ and ______________
antitussives, mucolytics and camphor/menthol
Headache can be treated with __________
Sore throat can be treated with __________ and __________
warm/cold fluid and pain relievers
Patient should be referred for cold if they have a ________, ______ pain, _______, ___________, _______ age or _________ months old
fever, chest pain, SOB, COPD, old age or <3 months old
Patients should be referred for cough if they have a ________, _________, cough for _________ days, infectious/colored _________, are _______ years or have cough accompanied with ______, _____ pain, ______, _______, ________ or _______
fever, COPD/asthma, cough for >7 days, infectious/colored mucus, are <4 years or have cough accompanied with SOB, chest pain, blood, chills, rash or cyanosis
What are non-pharmacologic treatment options for cough?
adequate fluid intake, rest, humidification and nasal irrigation
What are the 4 OTC medications for common cold?
Decongestants, Antihistamines, Antitussives and Expectorants (mucolytics)
What is one disadvantage of nasal decongestants?
rebound congestion may occur if used for >3 days
Oral decongestants have a _________ effect
Oral decongestants should be avoided in patients with...?
Heart disease, HTN, diabetes, thyroid disorders, BPH and glaucoma
First generation antihistamines have ______ effect on nasal congestion, but provide relief for _________ and __________
NO; rhinorhhea and sneezing
First generation antihistamines should be used with caution in _________
Second generation antihistamines are ______ effective for common cold
Antitussives are only recommended for _________ cough
Antitussive medications include...?
Dextromethorphan, Diphenhydramine and Camphor/Menthol
Expectorants help maintain _______ of respiratory tract and ______ the cough reflex
____________ is the only expectorant that has demonstrated safety and efficacy however ________ may still be the most effective expectorant
What is the proper expectorant treatment?
Guaifenesin AND water!
You should avoid decongestants in patients with _________ and _______ as well as _____________ and __________ women
diabetes and HTN; children <4 and pregnant women
Do not recommend antitussives in children ________
Camphor is not recommended in ages ______
<2 years (Vicks Baby Rub OK)
Do not recommend antihistamines in children _________
What are the treatment steps of minor wounds+ first aid?
Cleanse, topical antibiotic ointment, cover with bandage and change when needed
Patients should be referred for minor wounds if there is _________ after 5 minutes of pressure, _______ _______, have ___________ or ___________
bleeding after 5 minutes of pressure, animal bite, have diabetes or infected
Photoaging is ___________ damage caused by prolonged _______ exposure
Prevention of photoaging includes...?
Sunscreen with SPF 30 every day and avoid sun exposure when strongest
How can photoaging be treated?
Vitamin A products (aloe vera)
Warts can be treated with __________ and __________
duct tape and salicylic acid
Patients with warts should be referred if it is located on the _____ or _____, there are _______ warts, have ______, or are _______, _______, ________
face or genitals, there are multiple warts, have diabetes, or are painful, itching, bleeding
Calluses may develop _________ on the body where there is _____________
anywhere; repeated friction
Corns are located on the tops and sides of ______ and balls of ______
Patients with calluses and corns should be referred if they are experiencing __________ skin, _______ or have _______
hardened skin, pain or have diabetes
Cerumen impaction is defined as...?
excess amount of ear wax
Cerumen impaction can be treated by _______ wax with _______ or _______, cleaning with ________ water, and _______ ear canal
softening; oil or Debrox; warm; drying
What is a key counseling point for cerumen impaction self-treatment?
NEVER insert anything into ear canal
Patients with cerumen impaction should be referred if they are experiencing ______, _______, _________, ___________, __________ or _________
pain, ringing, fullness, hearing loss, cough or dizziness
Otitis externa is defined as __________ ______
What are the symptoms of otitis externa?
redness, swelling, itching, pain, or discharge
What are some non-pharmacologic treatments of otitis externa?
hair dryer and avoid manipulation
What are some OTC medications for otitis externa?
ear drops and pain relievers
Patients with otitis externa should be referred if symptoms are _______, experiencing ______________, ___________ of lymph nodes or _________
worsening, moderate-severe pain, swelling of lymph nodes or fever
Xerostomia is defined as _____ ________
What are some self-treatments for Xerostomia?
Sip water/sugar-free drinks, sugar-free gum/candy, saliva substitutes, humidifier at night and alcohol-free mouthwash
What should you avoid with Xerostomia?
Caffeine, alcohol, sugar, antihistamines and decongestants, tobacco
Sialorrhea is characterized as excessive _______ or ________
What are some non-pharmacologic options for sialorrhea?
ginger tea, sage, chewing gum, speech training or improve posture
What are some non-pharmacologic treatments for hemorrhoids?
easier bowel movement (stool softener, high-fiber foods, increase water intake) and symptom relief (topical treatments, sitz bath, oral pain relievers)
Patients with hemorrhoids should be referred if they experience _______, severe ________, no relief after _________, or any _______ to meds
bleeding, severe pain, no relief after 1 week or any allergies to meds
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