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BIOL 460- Final Exam
Terms in this set (160)
Multiple Choice: Which neurons are responsible for stimulating or inhibiting contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle?
Autonomic Motor Neuron
Fill in the Blank: Proteins that extend from the cytoskeleton within the cell, through the plasma membrane, and into the extracellular matrix are called _______. These structures affect cell motility, adhesion, and proliferation.
Type your answer: Which region of the brain contains the majority of the limbic system?
Multiple Choice: Strattera is a drug utilized to treat ADD/ADHD and is NOT typically an issue when it comes to substance abuse as it deals solely with which neurotransmitter?
Type your answer: What type of tissue is surrounded by the orange oval?
Type your answer: What role does the posterior pituitary gland (D) play in this depiction of the negative feedback loop involving dehydration? *Note that each letter represents a different part of the negative feedback process.
Multiple Choice: We have learned that the more you use a synapse, the better it works. This is a type of synaptic plasticity known as...
Long term potentiation
T/F Most brain tumors in adults are found within neurons.
Fill in the Blank: The resting membrane potential of a neuron is ___mV.
Fill in the Blank: The two types of acetylcholine receptors are ________ and muscarinic.
Multiple Choice: The gap of exposed axon in the myelin sheath is the...
Node of Ranvier
Multiple choice: Which of the following would produce an IPSP?
There may be more than one correct response
Opening a K+ channel that results in K+ exiting the cell
Opening a Ca2+ channel that results in Ca2+ exiting the cell
Opening a Cl- channel that results in Cl- entering the cell
Opening a Na+ channel that results in Na+ exiting the cell
Fill in the Blank: Phase ______ clinical trials are those where they choose some of the population who have the disorder or disease of interest and begin testing the drug on that specific population.
Match the scientists appropriately:
Heart pumps blood from a closed system : William Harvey
Coined the term homeostasis : F. Walter Cannon
Described homeostasis but did not coin the term : Claude Bernard
Coined the term antibody; Treated diphtheria with antibody serum : Emil Adolf von Behring
Discovered insulin : Frederick Banting, Charles Best, John Macleod
Determined the structure of DNA : Frances Crick, Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins
Discovered different blood types : Karl Landsteiner
Described the functioning of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) : John Langley
Fill in the Blank: Receptors that utilize a secondary messenger system or signal transduction pathway are known as _________ receptors.
Fill in the blank: The cell membrane is typically most permeable to ________ ions.
Fill in the Blank: The protein complex responsible for docking synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane of the terminal bouton is called _______.
Fill in the blank: Blocking _______ channels would prevent neuron depolarization.
Name the specific ion, not the type of channel.
Fill in the Blank: The ________ nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
T/F: Muscle found in association with blood vessels would be striated.
Fill in the blanks: Parkinson's disease is difficult to treat because it results from a deficiency in dopamine in the brain and giving an individual dopamine, unfortunately, has no impact on the disorder. This is because dopamine cannot cross the _______ ________ _______.
blood brain barrier
Fill in the blank: Receptors that directly open an ion channel without the use of any signal transduction pathways are known as _______ receptors.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following organ's cells do NOT have many aquaporins in their plasma membrane?
Multiple Choice: Which neurotransmitter(s) is/are responsible for sensations of pain?
Fill in the blank: A group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system is known as a(n)_______.
Fill in the Blank: The functional connection between a neuron and a second cell is called the ________.
Fill in the Blank: Once an embryo implants into the uterus the cells become ________. In this state, they can differentiate into almost all of the body's cells except those that create the placenta. These are also known as embryonic stem cells.
Fill in the blank: ______ is the only type of connective tissue that is characterized by having a liquid extracellular matrix.
Multiple choice: Which of the following is NOT an example of an exocrine gland?
Ovary cells that secrete estrogen into the blood
Multiple Choice: The Na+/K+ pump transports ______ the cell and ______ the cell per cycle.
2 K+ into; 3 Na+ out
Type your answer: Which region of the brain contains the hypothalamus?
Multiple Choice: Which of the following will typically NOT lead to the release of endogenous opioids?
Taking a physiology exam
Fill in the blanks: The action of ______ _______ phosphorylates various enzymes which will turn them on or off. It can also close ion channels.
Match the neuroglial cell to its function.
Some neuroglial cells will have MULTIPLE functions
Produces cerebrospinal fluid : Ependymal cells
Removes foreign debris or degenerated material : Microglia
Provides myelin sheath around CNS axons : Oligodendrocytes
Responsible for the formation of the blood brain barrier : Astrocytes
Provides myelin sheath around PNS axons : Schwann cells
Provides neurilemma around PNS axons : Schwann cells
Releases free radicals : Microglia
Takes up glucose and produces lactic acid or lactase which will act as an energy source for neurons : Astrocytes
Multiple Choice: The rate of diffusion is influenced by...
All of the above (the concentration gradient, membrane permeability, membrane surface area, membrane thickness)
Type your answer: What type of muscle tissue is shown in the image?
Fill in the blank: In the image below. B represents _____mV
Multiple Choice: Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain caused by excess fluid) would be treated with a(n) ________ intravenous solution of mannitol.
Match the different glucose receptor isoforms to their descriptions.
Found in the central nervous system : GLUT1
Found in pancreatic beta cells and hepatocytes of the liver. Deals with particularly high rates of glucose transport : GLUT2
Found associated with neurons in the peripheral nervous system : GLUT3
Found in adipocytes as well as skeletal muscle fibers. Can be regulated by either insulin or aerobic exercise : GLUT4
Fill in the blank: G-proteins and ______ are the two main second messenger molecules utilized in the body.
Fill in the Blank: ________ is the main neurotransmitter released by most postganglionic parasympathetic neurons.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is NOT a collateral ganglion:
True or False: Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone synthesis/production occurs in the neurohypophysis.
True or False: Pituitary Dwarfism is caused by growth years' hyposecretion of growth hormone.
Fill in the Blank: _______ is the hormone that stimulates milk production after childbirth.
True or False: Endocrine glands have ducts.
Multiple Choice: Phenylephrine and Pseudoephedrine function as ________ because they promote vasoconstriction in nasal mucosa.
Fill in the Blank: The hypothalamus works to control the release and inhibition of the adenohypophyseal hormones via a ______ ______ since there is no direct neural connection between the two structures.
Portal system/Portal vein
Fill in the Blank: When several sympathetic preganglionic neurons synapse on one postganglionic neuron, this is called _______.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is NOT a second messenger system activated by lipophobic hormones: Phospholipase C, Adenylate cyclase, Tyrosine kinase, or Calmodulin?
Fill in the Blank: __________ is the hormone that causes contractions of the uterus during childbirth. It is also responsible for the milk-ejection reflex.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following directly initiates the release of calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum in the phospholipase C mechanism?
Fill in the Blank: ________ receptors are found in all autonomic nervous system ganglia as they are always going to generate an EPSP in order to excite the postganglionic neuron.
Fill in the Blank: Clonidine and Catapres are exogenous agonists for ______ _______ receptors. They work to keep the fight or flight response in check by utilizing a negative feedback mechanism that decreases release of norepinephrine even though they are activated by norepinephrine.
True or False: Autonomic motor neurons leaving the spinal cord synapse once prior to synapsing with the target organ.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is not a function of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH):
a.) stimulates development of the egg in females
b.) stimulates testosterone production in males
c.) stimulates production of sperm in males
d.) stimulates estrogen production in females
Stimulates testosterone production in males
Fill in the Blank: When thyroid hormones bind to their nuclear receptors at two half-sites on the DNA's hormone response element to initiate transcription, they first must join together forming a _______.
Multiple Choice: Steroid hormone receptors may be found
Both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus
Multiple Choice: Which of the following are parasympathetic cranial nerves?
Fill in the Blank: Tyrosine kinase receptors have been implicated as a potential cause of _______. The ligands for these receptors are typically growth factors.
Multiple Choice: What is the function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
Stimulates retention of water by the kidneys
True or False: Many autonomic visceral effector organs can continue to somewhat function even without nervous innervation
Fill in the Blank: The ______ ______ signal transduction pathway is a common pathway for amine, polypeptide, and glycoprotein hormones. This pathway results in the phosphorylation of many other proteins.
Multiple Choice: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) causes which of the following hormones to be released from the anterior pituitary/adenohypophysis?
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Multiple Choice: Both portions of the pituitary gland develop due to growth induced by the notochord. The anterior pituitary develops as an evagination of the ________ while the posterior pituitary develops as an evagination of the _________.
Fill in the Blank: Molecules secreted by endocrine glands that are inactive until changed by their target cells are _________.
Fill in the Blank: ________ hormones, thyroid hormones, and melatonin can be taken orally.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true?
a) In general, the parasympathetic division has short preganglionic neurons and long postganglionic neurons while the sympathetic division has long preganglionic neurons and short postganglionic neurons.
b) In general, the parasympathetic division has long preganglionic neurons and short postganglionic neurons while the sympathetic division has short preganglionic neurons and long postganglionic neurons.
c) In general, both the parasympathetic division and the sympathetic division have long preganglionic neurons and short postganglionic neurons.
d) In general, both the parasympathetic division and the sympathetic division have short preganglionic neurons and long postganglionic neurons.
In general, the parasympathetic division has long preganglionic neurons and short postganglionic neurons while the sympathetic division has short preganglionic neurons and long postganglionic neurons.
True or False: Sympathetic stimulation of an organ ALWAYS opposes the effects of parasympathetic stimulation.
Fill in the Blank: Atenolol and metoprolol are drugs that are commonly called _______ _______. These drugs are used to decrease cardiac output in order to control high blood pressure.
Fill in the Blank: Sympathetic preganglionic neurons originate in what two regions of the spinal cord?
Multiple Choice: Most of the lipophilic hormones bind to receptors which...
Regulate gene expression
Fill in the Blank: Abnormally high levels of any of the anterior pituitary/adenohypophyseal hormones would cause the target gland to _______.
Fill in the Blank: Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons originate in the brain and in what region of the spinal cord?
Multiple Choice: The vagus nerve would innervate all of the following except:
a) the urinary bladder
b) the spleen
c) the liver
d) the heart
e) the small intestine
f) the stomach
g) the kidneys
h) the lungs
A- the urinary bladder
Fill in the Blanks: ________ _______ adrenergic receptors are found in the heart and are responsible for increasing heart rate and contractility so that your heart contracts more forcefully during a flight or fight emergency.
Multiple Choice: Autonomic motor nerves do NOT innervate...
Multiple Choice: The hypothalamus is creating appreciable amounts of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH is acting on the anterior pituitary/adenohypophysis causing it to produce and release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH acts directly on the thyroid gland causing production of thyroxine as well as some other hormones. Which of the following is going to occur once you have thyroxine circulating through the blood in appreciable amounts?
Thyroxine will inhibit the hypothalamus from releasing more TRH; Thyroxine will cause the anterior pituitary to be less responsive to TRH
Fill in the Blank: _________ is the main neurotransmitter released by most postganglionic sympathetic neurons
Multiple Choice: Thyroid hormone receptors may be found _______.
in the nucleus
Fill in the Blank: Check out the microscope image above. The labeled area X is referring to which part of the sarcomere, the _______ ________.
A band (also acceptable: A zone/ myosin/ myosin filament/ thick filament)
Multiple Choice: Drugs that are useful for treating asthma are
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is needed for the myosin cross bridge head to undergo a power stroke?
Release of phosphate
T/F: Skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated.
T/F: All prostaglandins are harmful.
T/F: Norepinephrine and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla have metabolic effects on the cells of the liver. The beta 2 receptors operate via the adenylate cyclase/cAMP mechanism while there is a redundant system involving alpha 1 receptors operating via the Phospholipase C/Calcium mechanism.
Multiple Choice: Prednisone is a ________ which can assist with any inflammatory issues as it suppresses the immune system.
Fill in the Blank: If pregnancy occurs then the ________ is formed from a combination of the embryo and the uterus.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following explains the decreased fertility in males with anabolic steroid abuse?
Exogenous testosterone will trigger a decrease in GnRH.
Fill in the Blank: ________ is the structure that runs the length of the entire sarcomere and contributes to the elastic recoil in muscle.
Fill in the Blank: ________ is the hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. This particular hormone helps to lower blood glucose levels.
Fill in the Blank: South Carolina is known for having high levels of ________ in the soil which helps prevent thyroid issues.
Fill in the Blank: The thin myofilament is primarily made up of the protein ________.
Fill in the Blank: In the colloid suspension of a thyroid follicle, if you combine two DITs together, you end up with the hormone known as ________ that is bound to thyroglobulin until it enters the follicular cells via endocytosis where the thyroglobulin will be cleaved.
Fill in the Blank: Elevated ________ in the blood is a trigger for aldosterone secretion from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. These levels must be kept in check or they can be fatal.
Fill in the Blank: Celebrex is a drug that is used to treat arthritis. It inhibits only COX2 and therefore relieves ________.
Multiple Choice: A child with ________ would be lethargic, shorter than average, and have mental and physical retardation.
Multiple Choice: A 35-year-old male patient presents with unexplained weight loss but an increase in appetite. You check his pulse and note that his heart rate is a bit quicker than it has been previously. He also complains of being warm or hot most of the time. You palpate his throat and notice a slight swelling that isn't very visible. You already have an idea as to what may be happening with this patient and decide to check his T3, T4, and TSH levels. What do you think is going on with the patient? Also, what do you expect to see from the lab results verifying this condition?
Grave's disease, Regular levels of TSH, High levels of T3 and T4
T/F: All three muscle types are attached to the connective tissues known as tendons and ligaments.
Fill in the Blank: Virtually every cell in the body can create the paracrine factors known as ________. During their production, phospholipase A2 converts a membrane phospholipid into arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is then converted into these substances by one of three cyclooxygenase isozymes.
Multiple Choice: A 24-year-old female patient presents with generalized weakness and rapid weight loss. After completing an initial blood panel, you notice that her blood glucose level is quite low however her insulin and glucagon levels seem to be in the normal ranges. You order additional blood work and notice that her T3, T4, and TSH levels appear to be normal, but her ACTH levels are very low. What diagnosis would you give this patient?
Multiple Choice: Endometriosis is a condition where the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterine body. This can be a painful condition as well as a cause for infertility. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition, typically in older men, where the prostate gland enlarges considerably which then squeezes the urethra and makes it impossible for the urinary bladder to be voided completely so incredibly frequent trips to the restroom are necessary and frustrating. Both of these conditions can be treated by giving what hormone-like compound that can cause the phenomenon known as downregulation if taken regularly?
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is NOT a role of glucagon in blood glucose homeostasis?
promotes the movement of glucose out of skeletal muscle cells
Fill in the Blank: Cross bridges are made of the protein ________.
Fill in the Blank: After menopause, the principle estrogen in the body is ________ which is produced by adipose cells.
Multiple Choice: Melatonin is antigonadotropic. Knowing this fact, you would expect diurnal animals (animals typically active during daylight hours) in South Carolina to breed more during which seasons?
spring and summer
Multiple Choice: Which of the following statements about calcitonin is true?
Calcitonin decreases the amount of calcium in the blood.
Fill in the Blank: ________ typically occurs around day 14 of the menstrual cycle and is marked by the eruption of the egg from the follicle.
Multiple Choice: ________ inhibits only COX3 which results in pain and fever reduction yet has no effect on inflammation.
Multiple Choice: Regulation of mineral homeostasis would be inhibited by decreased secretion of
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is an effect of hyperthyroidism?
Fill in the Blank: Any pregnancy that occurs where the fertilized egg implants in any other part of the body other than the stratum functionalis within the uterine body is known as a(n) ________ pregnancy.
Multiple Choice: During skeletal muscle contraction, adjacent ________ are pulled closer together as the ________ between them shorten.
Z discs; H zones
Multiple Choice: Which of the following hormones increases in both production and release drastically when you are under large amounts of stress over long periods of time? This will eventually cause issues with immune response which will result in you getting sick more often.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Multiple Choice: In order for skeletal muscles to contract, Ca2+ must bind to ________ in order to move the ________ out of the myosin binding domain of the G actin molecules.
Fill in the Blank: Within the seminiferous tubules of the testes is a layer of germinal epithelial cells. These germinal epithelial cells produce ________.
Multiple Choice: Which hormone is produced by the placenta to indicate that an embryo has been implanted in the uterus?
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Multiple Choice: Which of the following is true of parathyroid hormone function?
All of the above. (PTH increases blood calcium levels, causes the kidneys to reabsorb calcium, and increases the activity of osteoclasts.)
Fill in the Blanks: The pineal gland produces the hormone ________ that is used in entraining circadian rhythms.
Multiple Choice: Ovulation occurs due to a surge of what hormone?
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
T/F: Certain anticoagulants are used as pest control to kill either rats or vampire bats.
Fill in the Blank: ______ inhibits the activity of thrombin so fibrinogen is not converted into fibrin. We use this substance to coat many blood containers in the medical field to prevent the blood from clotting outside the body.
Fill in the Blank: A ______ is a stationary blood clot.
Fill in the Blank: The inability of muscle cells to relax due to high frequency stimulation is called ______. This may occur with or without some relaxation depending on the frequency of the stimulation.
Multiple Choice: Which of the following scenarios will bleed for a longer period of time due to which of the associated coagulation cascade pathways?
Clean cut made when shaving, intrinsic pathway
Multiple Choice: The amount of blood ejected by the ventricles per beat is termed the...
T/F: Skeletal muscles with a low innervation ratio such as 1:23 have a low degree of neutral control, i.e. they are not very precise.
Fill in the Blank: The recycling of action potentials that occur during ventricular fibrillation is called a ______ rhythm.
Multiple Choice: The pathway of the blood from the heart to the lungs and back is called the _______.
Multiple Choice: ________ is characterized by continued attachment of myosin cross bridge heads to actin filaments due to a lack of ATP.
Fill in the Blank: When discussing pacemaker potentials, the scientist who first noticed these labeled the channels as IF channels. The I stands for current while the F stands for ______.
Multiple Choice: You would expect to find fenestrated capillaries where in the body?
Endocrine glands, intestines, kidneys
T/F: Transverse tubules in skeletal muscle contain voltage-gated calcium channels that respond to membrane depolarization and are directly coupled to the calcium release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
T/F: You cannot survive without surgery if your cardiac pacemaker stops working.
Fill in the Blank: Which chamber of the heart is labeled A?
Multiple Choice: What structures keep the AV valves from everting under high ventricular pressure?
Papillary muscles and chordae tendineae
Multiple Choice: Calcium that is needed to activate cross bridge cycling in smooth muscle mainly comes from...
The extracellular environment
Fill in the Blank: The histological image below is of ______ muscle.
Fill in the Blank: When it comes to the action potentials of a ventricular myocardial cell, there is a long _______ phase where calcium and potassium channels are both open and little change in membrane potential is occurring.
Fill in the Blank: There are three basic layers to arteries and veins, the tunica interna, tunica _______, and the tunica externa.
Fill in the Blank: Any time a part of the cardiac conduction system that is not the typical pacemaker starts to generate its own action potentials, we call it an ______ pacemaker or focus.
Fill in the Blank: The first heart sound is generated by the closing of the _______ valves.
Multiple Choice: ______ filaments are attached to either dense bodies or the sarcolemma in smooth muscle cells.
Fill in the Blanks: The _____ ______ is the pacemaker of the heart.
Fill in the Blank: Blood pressure in an average human is ______ mmHg over 80 mmHg.
Fill in the Blank: _______ density lipoproteins are the bad type of cholesterol.
Multiple Choice: Cardiac ______ channels are called hyperpolarization cyclic nucleotide (HCN) channels because they open in response to either hyperpolarization or the presence of a cyclic nucleotide (specifically cyclic AMP).
Fill in the Blank: ________ is the term used to refer to contraction of the heart.
Multiple Choice: You escaped from the lion and now you're in Coker Life Sciences working on a physiology exam. Which fiber type are you most likely to use as you take the exam?
Fill in the Blank: Average human heart is ____ beats per minute.
Fill in the Blank: _______ cardia is a slow heart rate, typically less than 60 bpm.
T/F: Veins carry blood away from the heart.
Fill in the Blank: When a vein becomes dilated and the valves don't meet at the midline anymore, we call this a _______ vein.
Fill in the Blank: The majority of the Ca2+ required for skeletal muscle contraction comes from the _______ _______.
Multiple Choice: Damage to heart valves by antibodies in response to streptococcus bacteria is called
Fill in the Blank: The lymphatic system can help cancer ________ since cancer cells enter the lymph system.
Fill in the Blank: Plaques that form in arteries and tend to cause ischemia to downstream tissues are known as ________.
Fill in the Blank: Somatic motor neurons release the neurotransmitter ________ at the neuromuscular junction.
Multiple Choice: You are being chased by a lion and you need to dash to safety which happens to be the door to Coker Life Sciences about 200 m in front of you. Which fiber type are you most likely using as you attempt to evade the big cat.
Multiple Choice: Which statement about ECG tracings is FALSE?
The T wave represents depolarization of the atria.
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