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Research Methods Final
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Terms in this set (24)
I want to graphically represent some data. On the Y axis is the number of the participants, on the X axis is sex. Do I use a histogram or a bar chart?
Bar chart
I want to graphically represent some data. On the Y axis is the number of participants, on the X Axis is a 10 point scale from 1-10. Do I use a histogram or a bar chart?
Histogram
3 most common measures of central tendency are
mean, median, mode
What is the purpose of the IRB?
To make sure your experiment is ethical
A researcher has 10 groups of participants and each group gets an increasingly more potent dose of a toxin to discover at what dose people die from the toxin.
Minimize risk to participants
One of the criteria used for the IRB is "selection of participants is equitable" what does this mean?
the selection is fair/equal
Regarding collection data, what is the difference between confidentiality and anonymity?
Confidentiality= no one outside will know who you are
Anonymity= no one inside (the experiment) will know who you are
What are the four levels of measurement from lowest to highest?
nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
Regarding levels of measurement what does "mutually exclusive and exhaustive" mean?
Mutually exclusive= two events cannot occur at the same time
Exhaustive= the set of ideas is inclusive of all possible options
Put the five following parts of a research article in order:
a. results
b. lit review
c. methods
d. abstract
e. discussion
d,b,c,a,e
Researchers are looking at the following 4 variables: sex, race, income, and level of education. What level of measurement is associated with each variable?
sex= nominal
race= nominal
income= ratio
level of education= ordinal
Explain what null hypothesis is...
there is no difference
Explain what alpha level is...
the probability of rejecting the null when the null hypothesis is true.
Explain what a type one error is:
you reject the null when you should have failed to reject
Explain what a type two error is:
you fail to reject the null when you should have rejected
T or F
Correlational is a type of non-experimental research.
True
A researcher tested the relationship between men's self-esteem and income: the researcher did a Pearson's Correlation, the results are as follows. r= 1.23, p.= .02 what can you tell me about the researchers findings?
There is a positive moderate relationship.
As a person's self-esteem decreases, so does their income, what type of relationship is this (positive or negative)?
Positive
Why is a Pearson's Correlation misleading when the two variables are non-linear (they follow a U pattern)?
It can be a restrictive range and show a relationship where there isn't one.
Explain the statement "Correlation does not imply causation."
just because two things have correlation does not mean they cause one another, there could be a third variable causing the relationship.
_______(experiment or case study) has higher external validity and _________(experiment or case study) has higher internal validity.
experiment, case study
Give an example of a naturalist observation?
observing people behaviors at a concert
Explain the difference between a "participant observation" and a "disguised participant observation"
PO- the researcher becomes part of the group they're studying
DPO-the researchers pretend to be member of the experiment
A t-test basically examines the difference between what? Hint: its a measure of central tendency
mean scores
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