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Chapter 8 Genes to Proteins: Bulletproof
Terms in this set (17)
The building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids.
A macromolecule made up of repeating subunits called amino acids, which determine the shape and function of a protein. Proteins play many critical roles in living organisms.
The process of using DNA instructions to make proteins.The synthesis of a protein from the information encoded in a gene is called gene expression. When a cell makes the protein encoded by that gene, the gene is said to be "expressed"
Refers to an organism that carries one or more genes from a different species.
The first stage of gene expression, during which cells produce molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the instructions encoded within genes in DNA.
Why does amino acid structure determine protein shape?
The particular sequence of amino acids in a chain determines how the chain will fold. Interactions between amino acid side chains, and between these side chains and the surrounding water, influence the precise folding pattern. Hydrophobic amino acid side chains tend to clump together, away from water, while hydrophilic amino acids face out toward water. The distinct three-dimensional shape that forms as a result is what ultimately determines how a protein functions.
Why does protein shape matter?
it establishes what the function of the protein will be
What is the relationship between DNA, gene, amino acid, and protein?
As with all organisms, the instructions to make proteins are encoded in the DNA, in genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA that provides instructions for making one or more proteins. These instructions come in the form of the particular DNA nucleotide sequence making up the gene. Genes are found along the length of chromosomes, with each specific chromosome carrying a unique set of genes.
What is the difference between the regulatory sequence and the coding sequence of a gene?
Regulatory sequences are like on-off switches for genes: they determine when, where, and how much protein is produced from a gene. Coding sequences determine the identity of a protein: they specify the order, or sequence, of amino acids
Many of the foods we eat are transgenic. How are these organisms made?
By combining the regulatory sequence of one species with the coding sequence of another, scientists can coax an unrelated organism to make the desired protein. To make a transgenic yeast, for example, scientists first fuse the coding sequence of a spider silk gene to the regulatory sequence of a yeast gene. The combination is called a recombinant gene, since it mixes and matches segments of genes that weren't naturally found together. Next, using genetic engineering techniques, which manipulate DNA, scientists insert the recombinant gene into a piece of DNA that can carry the recombinant gene into the yeast cell, and ultimately into a yeast chromosome. The carrier DNA molecule is called a vector. The final step is gene expression, when the yeast protein machinery "reads" the instructions in the recombinant gene and synthesizes spider silk protein
the process of using DNA to make a messenger RNA (mRNA) copy of the gene.
the process of using this mRNA copy as a set of instructions to assemble amino acids into a protein
What is the polypeptide chainfor this DNA sequence? See infographic 8.8 TTC GCG CCC
T turns into a U - AAG CGC GGG
The second stage of gene expression, during which mRNA sequences are used to assemble the corresponding amino acids to make a protein.
(messenger RNA) The RNA copy of an original DNA sequence made during transcription.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA which is the primary component of ribosomes, essential to all cells. rRNA is a ribozyme which carries out protein synthesis in ribosomes.
(transfer RNA) A type of RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosome during translation.
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