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Unit 7 Study Guide: Social Psychology
Introductory Psychology CLEP study cards
Terms in this set (44)
holding two or more opposing views or attitudes. Smokers are a prime example of this, as many are aware of the bad health effects of smoking, yet they choose to partake in unhealthy behavior.
can occur when you change your behavior or attitude to align with a group. (Asch effect)
refers to an evaluation or a judgement that we make of a person, idea, or object.
refers to changing your behavior because of a request by an authority figure.
Solomon Asch experiment
70% of subjects conformed to a wrong answer rather than giving a correct answer
refers to changing your attitude based on communication with another person.
Stanley Milgram experiment
• a study that involved the role of a "teacher" who shocked a "learner"
• every single person administered some shock to the learner, and about two-thirds of the participants, of all ages and from all walks of life, obeyed to the fullest extent
• gender, age, and ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of obeying
refers to a negative attitude and feeling toward an individual based solely on one's membership in a particular social group.
a negative belief about individuals based solely on membership in a certain group, regardless of their individual characteristics. Often precursors to the development of prejudice (and discrimination).
What did Stanley Milgram research? What was his design and what were some ethical issues associated with this experiment?
Researched obedience to authority in his famous study at Yale University. He used confederates to pressure study participants to administer (fake) electric shocks to other people. The participants didn't know that the shocks were never administered so many left his experiment assuming they had caused great bodily harm on another person.
What was the Stanford Prison experiment? Who was the researcher who pioneered the study?
Philip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford Prison experiment, in which participants were randomly assigned into the roles of prison guards or prisoners in a fake prison set up in a basement at the university. Zimbardo wanted to explore the power of social roles and norms. The experiment ultimately had to be cut short due to participants' increasingly aggressive behaviors.
What did Alfred Kinsey, William Masters, and Virginia Johnson study? What are some similarities and differences in their work?
Alfred Kinsey, William Masters, and Virginia Johnson studied human sexuality. Kinsey focused on people's sexual behaviors, whereas Masters and Johnson examined the sexual response cycle.
studied social modeling or observational learning. Most famous study focused on children watching an aggressive act on a video and then having opportunity to replicate the same behavior they watched.
focused on human motivation and developed his famous hierarchy of needs. His model suggests that basic physiological and security needs such as food, shelter, warmth, and safety must be met first before a person can focus on inner fulfillment in life. He is also a proponent of the Humanism school of therapy in which clients are encouraged to seek their fulfillment in life.
focused on group behavior specifically persuading members of a group to change their attitudes even if it's wrong. In his classic experiment, he found a conformity effect ("Asch effect") that occurs when a group convinces a member of an untrue fact so much that the member changes his attitude to conform to the consensus of the group.
What is the difference between situationism and dispositionism?
Situationism is the view that our behavior and actions are determined by our immediate environment and surroundings.
In contrast, dispositionism holds that our behavior is determined by internal factors.
internal (personality traits) and external (situations, social context)
People's behaviors are a result of ________________________ and __________________________ factors.
In which type of culture is the fundamental attribution error most commonly found?
Western cultures, such as the United States, favor a dispositionism view, and assume that we are aware of our own choices and behaviors. This may lead us to conclude that a behavior is a function of an internal trait without considering the social context.
fundamental attribution error
explaining behavior solely via internal traits and not taking the situation into account.
individualistic cultures (cultures that focus on individual achievement and autonomy)
Research shows that people of _______________________________________________ are more prone to commit the fundamental attribution error.
expands beyond the fundamental attribution error. The person still assumes that other people's behvaiors are a result of internal traits (fundamental attribution error) but at the same time attributes his own behavior to situational factors.
For example, if I do poorly on a psychology exam while my friend aces it, I might blame the fact that the room was too hot or that there was too much noise for me to concentrate.
When we make internal attribution for our successes and fail to take situational factors into account.
just world hypothesis
stipulates that we all get what we deserve. So when we walk by a homeless person on the street, we might assume that this person has done something in his life to "deserve" having to live on the street.
when a number of people witness the same event, they are less likely to interfere or act when needed. For instance, people may not offer money or food to a homeless person on the street, assuming that others will.
Social psychology argues that behavior and actions should be viewed ____ ________________.
Philip Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment
provided a real-life demonstration of the influence of social roles and context. He was forced to cut his simulated prison study short when participants who had been randomly assigned into the role of prison guards became increasingly aggressive and violent over their inmates.
What is drive theory?
states that when your body moves away from a state of homeostasis (a state of perfect physiological balance), a physiological need arises. For example, when your blood sugar drops (imbalance) because you have not eaten in a few hours, you become hungry and are thus motivated to eat.
What does Maslow's hierarchy of needs suggest?
While most theories focus on biological and physiological processes to explain motivation and emotion, Abraham Maslow's work includes social motivations as well. Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs which suggests that once basic physical needs such as shelter, food, warmth are met, individuals can address individual and social needs. His work suggests that once physiological needs are met, people can address social needs and find their own realization (self-actualization).
Three theories that focus on understanding emotions
The James Lange theory
The Cannon-Bard theory
The Schachter-Singer two factor theory
James Langue theory
states that physiological arousal causes emotions so that if you see a bear in the woods as you're hiking, your body would react (fight or flight) by increased physiological arousal, for example, increased heartbeat, sweating which in turn would make you feel afraid.
suggests that both physiological arousal and emotional experience occur simultaneously but independent of each other. For example, if confronted with an intruder, you will feel both fear as well as a physiological arousal (seating, increased heart beat) at the same time.
Schachter-Singer two factor theory
suggests that there is a cognitive as well as physiological component to emotions. Specifically, this theory assumes that we interpret our physiological response based on what we known (cognitive). Drawing on the bear in the woods example, the Schacter-Singer two factor theory explains that we experience fear because we know that confronting a bear in the woods is alarming.
Lazarus' cognitive mediational theory
suggests that emotional responses are a function of our appraisal of the stimulus which is often an unconscious process.
Conforming to a request or demand
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
A character's incentive or reason for behaving in a certain manner; that which impels a character to act
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
a person who is given a role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated
diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
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