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71 terms

Chapt. 31/Asepsis

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Acquired immunity (passive immunity)
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced by another source
Active immunity
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artifical antigens
Acute infections
those that generally appear suddenly or last a short time
Airborne precautions
used for clients known to have or suspected of having serious illnesses transmittede by airborn droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns
Antiboides
immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
Antigen
a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies
Antiseptics
an agent that inhibits the growth of some microorganisms
Asepsis
freedom from infection or infectious material
Autoantigen
an antigen that originates in a person's own body
Bacteremia
bacteria in the blood
Bacteria
the most common infection-causing microorganisms
Bloodborne pathogens
potentially infectious organisms that are carried in and transmitted through blood or materials containing blood
Carrier
a person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent and serves as a potential source of infection, yet does not manifest any clinical signs of disease
Cell-mediated defenses (Cellular immunity)
occur through the T-cell system
Cellular immunity (Cell-mediated defenses)
occur through the T-cell system
Chronic infections
infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years
Circulating immunity (Humoral immunity)
antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produces by the B cells
Clean
free of potentially infectious agents
Colonization
the presence of organisms in body secretions or excretions in which strains of bacteria become resident flora but do not cause illness
Communicable disease
a disease that can spread from one person to another
Compromised host
any person at increased risk for infection
Contact precautions
used for clients known or suspected to have a serious illnesse easily transmitted by direct client contact or by contact with items in the client's environment.
Cultures
laboratory cultivations of microorganisms in a special growth medium
Dirty
denotes the likely presence of microorganisms some of which may be capable of causing infection
Disease
an alteration in body function resulting in a reduction of capacities or shortening of the normal life span
Disinfectants
agent that destroys microoranisms other than spores
Droplet nuclei
residue of evaporated droplets emitted by an infected host, such as someone with ruberculosis, that can remain in the air for long periods of time
Droplet precautions
used for clients known or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns (diptheria, microplasma, pneumonia)
Endogenous
developing from within
Exogenous
developing from outside sources
Exudate
perulent drainage
Fungi
infection-causing microorganisms that include yeasts and molds
Granulation tissue
young connective tissue with new capillaries
Health care-associated infection (HAI)
those infections that originate in any health care setting
Humoral immunity
antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produced by B cells
iatrogenic infections
infections that are the direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures
Immune defenses (specific immune defenses)
immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi or other infectious agents
Immunity
a specific resistance of the body to infection; it may be natural, or resistance may develop after exposure to a disease agent
Immunoglobulins (Antibodies)
immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
Infections
the disease process produced by microorganisms
Inflammation
local and nonspecific defensive tissue response to injury or destruction of cells
Isolation
practices that prevent the psread of infection and communicable disease
Leukocytes
an increase in the number of white blood cells
Leukocytosis
an increase in the number of white blood cells
Local infection
an infection that is limited to the specific part of the body where the microorganisms remain
Medical asepsis
all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth and spread of microorganisms
Nonspecific defenses
bodily defenses that protect a person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure
Nosocomial infections
infections that originate in a hospital
Occupational exposure
skin, eye mucus membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
Opportunistic pathogen
a microorganism causing disease only in a susceptible individual
Parasites
microorganisms that live in or on another from which it obtains nourishment
Passive immunity
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artifical antibodies produced by another source
Pathogenicity
the ability to produce disease; a pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease
Regeneration
renewal, regrowth, the replacement of destroyed tissue by cells that are identical or similar in structure and function
Reservoirs
a source of microorganisms
Resident flora
microorganisms that normally reside on the skin and mucous membranes, and inside the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette
covering the mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing, proper disposal of tissues and separating potentially infected persons from othe4rs bya least 1 m (3 ft.) or having them wear a surgical mask
Sepsis
the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or body tissues
Septicemia
occurs when bacteremia results in systemic infection
Specific defenses
immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents
Standard precautions (SP)
the risk of caregiver exposure to client body tissues and fluids rather than the suspected presence or absence of infectious organisms determines the use of clean gloves, gowns, masks and eye protection
Sterile field
a microorganism-free area
Sterile technique
practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms
Sterilization
a process that destroys all microorganisms, including spores and viruses
Surgical asepsis
practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms; also called sterile technique
Systemic infection
occurs when pathogens spread and damage different parts of the body
Universal precautions (UP)
techniques to be used with all clients to decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens, currently standard precautions incorporate UP and BSI
Vector-borne transmission
transport of an infectious agent from an animal or flying or crawling insect that serves as an intermediate means via biting or depositing feces or other materials on the skin
Vehicle-borne transmission
transport of an infectious agent into a susceptible host via any intermediate substance (e.g. fomites or food)
Virulence
ability to produce disease
Viruses
nucleic acid-based infectious agents