US History Unit 3 Review

Jefferson's Inauguration
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(1801) Thomas Jefferson's Inauguration as the third president of the United States was important because it marked the peaceful transition of two political parties. Those parties were the Federalists, and their hated rivals, the Democratic Republicans. His presidency demonstrated that national policy could be changed without dictatorship or revolt. Unlike Washington and Adams who rode in horse-drawn carriages with liverymen, Jefferson walked down Pennsylvania Avenue like a regular person.
Battle of New Orleans, 1815Famous battle the occurred AFTER the War of 1812 is finished ironically. Battle that made Andrew Jackson a war hero- he was able to bring together americans and inspire them to fight the Brits.Result of the War of 1812US gained more respect from the rest of the world; American isolationism; Federalist party died out;Missouri Compromise"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states, all South were slave states.Monroe DoctrineA statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.The "Corrupt Bargain"Refers to the claim from the supporters of Andrew Jackson that John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay had worked out a deal to ensure that Adams was elected president by the House of Representatives in 1824.1828 Presidential Electionpresidential election in which Democratic Party (Andrew Jackson) defeated National Republican Party (Adams)Andrew Jackson's InaugurationHe threw an "open house Party" which resulted in destruction of much of the White HouseSouth Carolina Exposition and ProtestWritten in 1828 by Vice President Calhoun of S. Carolina to protest the the "Tariff of Abominations", which seemed to favor Northern industry; introduced the concept of state interposition & became the basis for S. Carolina's Nullification Doctrine of 1833.Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations)Tariff passed by Congress that imposed very high duties on imports ( 62% tariff on 92% of imported goods). Southerners protested because it increased the cost of the manufactured good they bought. It was said to have been passed not to raise money but to protect the interests of Northern manufacturers at the expense of Southern farmers.Theory of Nullificationthe theory that states have the right to nullify a federal law they feel is unconstitutional (Kentucky and Virginia Resolves)Nullification Crisis of 1832When southern states attempted to nullify the Tariff Act of 1832, Andrew Jackson punishes them by sending troops to South CarolinaPeggy EatonSocial scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.Jackson's Indian PolicyForced removalIndian Removal Act(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi RiverRechartering of Bank of the United States (1832)Jackson vetoed the recharter, arguing that it was unconstitutionalElection of 1840William Henry Harrison (Whig) vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrat); result: Whig victory & a truly national two-party system.William Henry Harrisonwas an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.John Tyler's PresidencyAfter Harrison dies, John Tyler becomes President, essentially without a party. Tyler ran as the Whig VP but was a Democrat at heart. He vetoed bills from Whigs. He was hated by Whigs and not trusted by democrats. He had no political allies, most lonely, not successful, and the only President to become a confederate during Civil War.Battle of the Alamo1836 attack on the Alamo mission in San Antonio by Mexican forces during the Texas revolutionBattle of San Jacinto(1836) Final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for TexasTexas Annexation1845. Originally refused in 1837, as the U.S. Government believed that the annexation would lead to war with Mexico.Mexican-American War(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.End of the Mexican war and slaveryThe newly gained territory caused a crisis in deciding whether or not the territories would be slave states or free. "Settled" with the Compromise of 1850Compromise of 1850California admitted as free state Territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico Resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries Federal assumption of Texas debt Slave trade abolished in DC New fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. DouglasPopular SovereigntyThe opinion of Senator Louis Cass that the new states should decide on their own whether they wanted to be slave statesCalifornia's AnnexationCalifornia (privately encouraged by the president) drafted a constitution and then applied for free statehood, thus bypassing the usual territorial stage and avoiding becoming a slave state.Wilmot Proviso1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with MexicoHarriet Beecher StoweAuthor of Uncle Tom's CabinKansas-Nebraska Act (1854)Proposed by Senator Douglas- advocated popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska territories. Douglas wanted it to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route through Illinois, thus benefitting his state economically. K/A Act passed but backfired terribly as extremes of both sides of slavery debate flooded into Kansas. Votes on constitutions were plagued with fraud and "Bleeding Kansas" begins."Bleeding Kansas"A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.Lecomton ConstitutionTrickery proslavery document deigned to bring Kansas into the Union but was blocked by Stephen A. Douglas.Charles SumnerA leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and a senator. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could voteHarper's FerryFederal arsenal in Virginia seized by abolitionist John Brown in 1859, to give arms to slaves. Though Brown was later captured and executed, his raid alarmed Southerners who believed that Northerners shared in Brown's extremism.Southern SecessionFollowing Lincoln's election, the southern states seceded from the Union beginning with South Carolina. Other Deep-South states followed, and elected Jefferson Davis as the leader of the Confederacy.Beginning of Civil War1861, Confederate seige and capture of Fort Sumter by General BeauregardConfederate Strategyfight a defensive war, gain foreign allies, wear out the North's will to fightEmancipation ProclamationIssued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be freeVicksburgGrant's best fought campaign, this siege ended in the seizure of the Mississippi River by the UnionBattle of GettysburgTurning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North. Known as the bloodiest battle in the entire Civil WarDoctrine of Total WarComplete economic and military destructionSurrender of the ConfederacyApril 9,1865 at the Appomattox Courthouse. When Lee's troops failed to break through the Union's army, Lee realized there was nothing he could do but surrender. The terms of the surrender guaranteed that the US would not prosecute Confederate soldiers for treason.Which were generally considered to be acceptable activities for women outside of the home?Working in religious and social realmsBy the 1850s, a communications revolution had been triggered by the development of the:TelegraphThe most popular form of indoor entertainment in the first half of the nineteenth century was:TheaterBy 1860, one would be most likely to encounter Norwegian and Swedish immigrants in:Wisconsin and MinnesotaGerman migration to the US,was sometimes temporary, as a significant percent of Germans returned to their homelandInvention of the Cotton GinLed to cotton becoming a major export itemWhat effect did the steamboat have on the US?They brought cheaper/ faster two-way traffic to the Mississippi ValleyPoor whites were often employed asday laborersThe ultimate purpose of the slave code was to:prevent runaways and rebellions by limiting the way slave owners could treat slavesA typical form of resistance pursued by slaves entailed:feigning illness and sabotageThe plantation mistress:Often ran the household and dairy in the way her husband ran the plantation businessThe frequency of dueling in the South was probably caused by:Southerner's exalted sense of prideThe fear of slave rebellion increased after:The successful slave revolt that took over the French island of Saint-Domingue and turned it into the free nation of HaitiThe legal prohibition that denied slaves the right to marry, did not stop slaves from choosing partners and forging a family lifeSlaves living in southern cities had a much different experience than those on farms because:They were able to interact with an extended interracial communitySlave religion was:Mixed Christian and African elementsJoseph SmithReligious leader who founded the Mormon Church in West NYThe "cult of domesticity" was the idea thata woman's place is in the homeCircuit RiderPreachers who traveled by horseback from community to communityDorothea Lynde DixSpearheaded the nineteenth-century movement to provide better care for the mentally ill through hospitalizationThe rise of romanticism indicated:recognition of the limits of science and reasonWhat was a key reason why some reformers advocated for a public school system?To prepare the next generation to become good citizensAs a transcendentalist, Ralph Waldo Emerson believed that:Self-knowledge opened the doors to self-improvementMembers of the Shaker community:Practiced celibacy and owned everything in commonThe killing of Elijah Lovejoy showed:Support of slavery extended into the NorthWhich side did German immigrants tend to support during the Civil War?They overwhelmingly supported the Union because the Confederacy reminded them of the suppression of democracy experienced in German states from which they fledBattle of New Orleans (1862)The Union won a great naval victory that proved to be a terrible setback to the Southern Economy, giving the Union control of many cotton plantations.Battle of PetersburgA battle in the Civil War at which Grant captured a town near Richmond by surrounding it in order to cut off Richmond from supplies. Grant chased Lee's troops and put the trapped Confederates under siegeWhich of the following statements about African American army units in the Union is accurate?Despite lower pay than whites, they saw significant action and suffered heavy lossesWhat was the significance of Kentucky at the start of the War?Because it was a neutral, slaveholding state, Lincoln was determined to bring it to the Union side to make victory more likelyLyons WakemanA female soldier who disguised her gender to serve in the warFollowing the Emancipation Proclamation, Northern laborers:Were worried that freed slaves would eventually move North, resulting in job competitionThe Homestead Act and Morrill Land Grant College Act of 1862 were both examples of the federal government promoting economic growth through:Gifts of free land in exchange for something, such as work or the creation of public universitiesBy the time President Grant took office, southern resistance to Reconstruction efforts had:Increased and turned violent with the rise of white supremacyMost scalawags were white southerners who had:Opposed secessionHow did President Grant respond to the Klan?He urged Republicans to pass three enforcement Acts, which, although intended to protect black rights and punish those who threatened them, they were not consistently enforced.President Johnson fully broke with Congress in 1866 when he:Vetoed the Civil Rights ActHow did the "redeemer" Conservative Democrats come to power in the South during the 1870s?By using the race issue to excite the white electorate and threaten black votersWhich was a task of the Freedmen's Bureau?Providing formerly enslaved African Americans with food, clothing, and legal assistance with setting up schools.Most carpetbaggers were:Union veterans