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Anatomy and Physiology I - Final pt. 6
Terms in this set (128)
A spinal tap showed bacteria and WBCs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This individual most likely has what condition?
All cranial nerve lead to structures in the head and neck.
Degeneration of the neurons in which of the following structures leads to the muscle tremors associated with Parkinsons?
From superficial to deep, the meninges occur in which order?
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
In which structure is the arbor vitae found?
Most gray matter of the cerebrum is located in which region?
Planning, motivation, and social judgment are functions of the brain associated with which part of the cerebrum?
Short-term memory is associated with the _____, whereas long-term memory is associated with the _____.
hippocampus; cerebral cortex
The gray matter of the cerebrum forms a surface layer called the _____.
The gray matter of the cerebrum forms deeper masses called _____ surrounded by white matter.
The blood-CSF barrier is composed of dense regular connective tissue lining the ventricles.
The cerebellum exhibits folds called gyri separated by grooves called sulci.
The epidural space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
The medulla oblongata originates from which structure?
The pons and cerebellum arise from which secondary embryonic vesicle?
The right and left cerebral hemispheres are separated from each other by _____.
There are no cranial nerves associated with which part of the brain?
What is the largest part of the hindbrain?
Which body region is controlled by the largest area of the motor cortex?
Which lobe is deep to the lateral sulcus and can only be seen by removing some of the overlying cerebrum?
Which of the following is correct regarding the occipital lobe?
it is the principal visual center of the brain
Which of the following structures appears as a large bulge just rostral to the medulla?
______ show more lateralization than _____.
adult males; adult females
Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the control of _____.
All autonomic output originates in the central nervous system.
Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except ______.
maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck
Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely _____.
decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant
Stretch receptors called ______ in the walls of arteries help to maintain blood pressure.
High blood pressure will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to ______ its beats per minute.
Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with ______.
10-20 postganglionic neurons
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.
myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)
Sympathetic effects tend to last shorter than parasympathetic effects.
Norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down thus prolonging its effects.
Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving _____.
The adrenal medulla secretes mostly ______.
The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the _____.
skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis
The binding of _____ to a nicotinic receptor of a muscle fiber will _____ it.
The enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine (NE) is called _____.
monoamine oxidase (MAO)
The parasympathetic division arises from the ______ regions of the spinal cord.
brain and sacral
The sympathetic chain of ganglia is found at the _____ levels of the spinal cord.
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
Which of the following is associated with the "flight-or-fight" reaction?
reduced urinary output
Which of the following is not under dual control of the ANS?
adrenal medulla activity
Which of the following structures is not associated with the autonomic nervous system?
all of these are associated with the autonomic nervous system
Which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?
postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division
_____ nerve(s) pass(es) throughout sympathetic ganglia without synapsing.
Pain, heat, and cold are detected by ______.
free nerve endings
Sensory receptors sense only stimuli external to the body, such as light, sound waves, olfaction, and touch.
Divergent sensory pathways explain the phenomenon of referred pain.
The ossicles belong to the middle ear.
The middle ear consists of a fluid-filled chamber.
Rods secrete glutamate from the base of the cell when exposed to light.
The initial effect of a stimulus on a sensory receptor is a local electrical change specifically called a(an) __________.
Changes in blood pressure are detected by ______ in certain arteries.
Which of the following is not involved with spinal gating of pain signals?
lower motor neurons
Which taste sensation is produced by amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid?
What is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first through the thalamus?
Which of the following structures houses the spiral organ?
The spiral organ is house within which of the following structures?
Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?
cochlear hair cells
When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of your _____.
Which of the following does not contribute to the sense of equilibrium?
Which of the following is not considered an accessory structure of the eye?
Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the __________ and exit the eye by way of the optic nerve.
Which cells are responsible for photopic (day) vision as well as trichromatic (color vision?
What are the retinal cells that produce action potentials?
Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate at the __________.
Which of the following correctly describes the vestibular projection pathway to the brain?
vestibular nerve 🠒 vestibulocochlear nerve 🠒 vestibular nuclei 🠒 thalamus
Which structure forms the floor and part of the walls of the third ventricle?
Where are cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers found?
In the cerebral cortex, which cells process information on a local level?
A lesion in which structure would cause a person to have an erratic waking/sleeping cycle?
The amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus are involved in such feelings as love, anger, fear, pleasure, and pain.
The forebrain consists of the cerebrum and the diencephalon.
After a stroke, a patient complains about lack of sensitivity in her right hand. The stroke most likely affected which part of the brain?
postcentral gyrus in the left parietal lobe
Which of the following pairings of brain wave names and descriptions is paired correctly?
delta waves - predominance of these may indicate serious brain damage in an adult
Sex drive, body temperature, and food and water intake are regulated by which part of the brain?
Nonfluent aphasia, due to a lesion in the __________, results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.
The reticular formation is a web of _____ scattered throughout the ______.
gray mater; brainstem
The cerebellum is the largest part of the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by choroid plexuses in the _____ ventricles and reabsorbed by arachnoid villi in the _____.
lateral, and third, superiors sagittal sinus
The vision association area resides primarily in the temporal lobe.
Which of the following functions would most likely be controlled by the representational hemisphere of the cerebrum?
painting a picture
The Wernicke area recognizes spoken and written language.
The pineal gland is part of which larger region of the brain?
Exhausted from studying all night, you briefly close your eyes and your mind starts to wander. Which brain waves would be most predominant in an EEG?
What is the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face?
trigeminal nerve (V)
Loss of equilibrium and motor coordination would most likely be related to a lesion in which structure?
Your dentist gives you an injection of anesthetic in preparation for a filling. Which cranial nerve did they target?
The medulla oblongata is the most rostral part of the brain.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is most permeable to which of the following?
glucose and oxygen
Which cranial nerve pathway would be used to look cross-eyed at the tip of your nose?
trochlear nerve (IV)
Which of the following is not a function of CSF?
to provide oxygen and nutrients to the nervous tissue
The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are) _____.
Autonomic function receives input from all these except _____.
Acetylcholine (ACh) binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.
The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion.
A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____.
preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)
If a cell has α1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to _____.
Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?
sensory receptor 🠒 afferent nerve fiber 🠒 interneuron 🠒 efferent nerve fiber 🠒 gland
Vasomotor tone is controlled by using sympathetic division for vasodilation and parasympathetic division for vasoconstriction.
Muscarinic receptors bind ________.
The background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is called__________.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
it has short preganglionic fibers
The solar plexus is used as a name for the _________.
celiac and mesenteric ganglia
Which of the following is true regarding the autonomic nervous system?
its denervation would cause hypersensitivity
Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in the __________.
The enteric nervous system controls the digestive system with no extrinsic control necessary.
All sympathetic postganglionic adrenergic fibers secrete adrenaline.
Which of the following statements is true regarding parasympathetic tone?
it holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate
Sympathetic fibers do not release __________.
nitric oxide (NO)
The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis.
__________ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
Damage to the __________ may affect near vision accommodation.
oculomotor nerve (CN III)
Propranolol, a beta-blocker, is typically used to ________.
decrease heart rate
The three types of cones in the retina are differentiated from one another by what feature?
the absorption peak of their photopsin
In a taste bud, which cell produces a receptor potential?
When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of your __________.
What do pheromones stimulate?
Which organ does not have nociceptors?
Gustatory signals travel from the tongue through the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves.
What is correct order of cells in the retina from back to front?
photoreceptor 🠒 bipolar 🠒 ganglion
A 100 dB sound (loud) of 150 Hz (low pitch) would cause which of the following to occur?
basilar membrane to vibrate vigorously near its distal end
The initial effect of a stimulus on a sensory receptor is a local electrical change specifically called a(n) __________.
The cornea belongs to the tunica fibrosa (fibrous layer) of the eyeball.
Each upward movement of the basilar causes the stereocilia of the inner hair cells to bend, opening __________ gates.
Vitamin A is necessary for the synthesis of rhodopsin.
Which of the following are unencapsulated endings?
free nerve endings
Changes in blood pressure are detected by __________ in certain arteries.
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