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Chapter 17 Test
Terms in this set (46)
Following a kidney transplant, a patient typically takes medication to:
A) suppress the immune system until cell surface molecules of donor and recipient tissues match.
B) boost the immune system to facilitate the repair of tissue damaged during surgery.
C)suppress the immune system to prevent activation of a cellular immune response.
D) boost the immune system to prevent the chance of infection.
Term for fever is:
Any molecule that triggers an immune response is called an:
The chemical _____ causes inflammatory responses that produce that symptoms of an allergy, such as runny nose, watery eyes, and congestion
A procedure that involves removing tissue from one part of the body and transplanting it in another location is called an____
After the spleen destroys old red blood cells, it:
A) releases leftover hemoglobin into the circulatory system.
B) creates bilirubin, which it secretes into the intestines.
C) stores leftover iron for later use.
D) returns leftover iron and globin to the liver and bone marrow
What is mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
A) Tissue that produces lymphocytes
B) Scatterings of lymphocytes within the mucosal linings of certain body passages
C) The mucosa of lymphatic vessels
D) Clusters of lymphocytes surrounded by a fibrous capsule
What is a purpose of Peyer's patches?
A) Produce T cells
B) Form a protective circle at the back of the throat to guard against pathogens entering the body
C) Monitor bacterial populations within the intestine
D) Serve as a reservoir for beneficial gut bacteria
What role do helper T cells play in cellular immunity?
A) They trigger the immune process by presenting a fragment of the antigen on its surface.
B) They secrete chemicals that summon neutrophils and natural killer cells.
C) They secrete chemicals that destroy the antigen.
D) They help the cytotoxic T cell destroy the antigen by binding to the surface of the antigen.
Helper T cells
A) attract neutrophils, natural killer cells, and macrophages.
B) trigger the complement cascade.
C) trigger agglutination.
D) prevent an antigen from attaching to a human cell.
Lymph differs from plasma in that lymph has
A) a higher glucose content.
B) a higher protein content.
C) a lower protein content.
D) a lower glucose content
Which statement correctly describes the effect of inflammation upon healing?
A) Redness, or hyperemia, resulting from inflammation brings materials necessary for healing and, therefore, can be a beneficial part of the healing process.
B) Swelling that accompanies inflammation is a sign of increased venous drainage and, therefore, is a positive sign of healing.
C) Swelling that accompanies inflammation delays healing because it compresses blood vessels, impairing the ability of neutrophils to enter the area.
D) Heat that accompanies inflammation delays healing because the increased temperature slows the rate of tissue repair.
Which of the following statements about interferon is correct?
A) Interferon binds to surface receptors of cells in the area surrounding an infection.
B) Interferon triggers the production of enzymes within cells that have become infected.
C) Enzymes produced within neighboring cells at the prompting of interferon prevent the virus from invading.
D) Interferon is produced by cells before being infected with a virus
The membrane attack complex destroys a bacterium by
A) punching holes in the plasma membrane of the bacterium to allow fluid to rush out of the cell.
B) producing antibodies against the bacterium.
C) delivering a toxic dose of chemicals to the bacterium.
D) punching holes in the plasma membrane of the bacterium to allow fluid and sodium to rush into the cell.
A patient comes to the hospital after losing a large amount of blood. Which function of the spleen is most important in this situation?
A) The destruction of worn-out blood cells
B) Ingestion and destruction of microorganisms
C) Blood storage
D) The production of red blood cells
When someone with a genetic predisposition to an allergy is first exposed to the allergen, the body responds by producing large amounts of
B) mast cells.
C) the antibody IgG.
D) the antibody IgE.
T lymphocytes are "trained" to recognize foreign cells in the
C) red bone marrow.
Which part of the lymph node forms and releases lymphocytes when an infection is present?
B) Germinal centers
C) Cortical nodules
A patient is undergoing treatment for breast cancer. After surgery, the pathology report shows the presence of cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes. What is the most probable explanation for this finding?
A) The cancer began in the lymph nodes and spread to the breast.
B) The lymph nodes have been stimulated by the cancer cells to release phagocytic white blood cells targeted specifically to the cancer.
C) Cancer cells may have spread to other parts of the body.
D) The lymph nodes are doing their job to remove cancerous cells from the bloodstream.
Injecting a vaccine of a dead or weakened pathogen imparts which type of immunity?
A) Artificial passive immunity
B) Natural passive immunity
C) Artificial active immunity
D) Natural active immunity
Lymph from the left arm drains into the
A) superior vena cava.
B) inferior vena cava.
C) right subclavian vein.
D) left subclavian vein
Fever helps fight antigens because the elevated body temperature
A) stimulates the production of antibodies.
B) inhibits the reproduction of bacteria and viruses.
C) kills the antigen.
D) increases the reproduction of neutrophils
Humoral immunity mainly uses which type of cell?
A) T cells
C) Antimicrobial proteins
D) B cells
Which of the following is a primary lymphatic organ?
A) Lymph nodes
In what location do stem cells divide and mature into T and B lymphocytes?
A) Lymph nodes
B) The spleen
C) Secondary lymphatic organs
D) Primary lymphatic organS
The mucous membranes of the respiratory tract repel pathogens because they
A) contain an acid mantle, which inhibits bacterial growth.
B) contain cilia, which propel pathogens out of the body.
C) consists of tough protein, which repels most pathogens.
D) produce mucus, which traps pathogens.
Which of the following statements about lymphatic vessels is correct?
A) Lymphatic vessels have valves.
B) Fluid moves through lymphatic vessels away from tissues and toward the heart.
C) Lymphatic vessels originate at the terminal ends of capillaries.
D) Lymphatic vessels consist of tightly joined epithelial cells
What is a primary function of lymph nodes?
A) Remove pathogens from the blood
B) Remove pathogens from lymph
C) Separate lymphatic fluid from plasma
D) Destroy old red blood cells
The skin and mucous membranes are part of the body's
A) third line of defense.
B) second line of defense.
C) first line of defense.
D) specific immunity
The body's largest lymphatic organ is the:
Within the sinuses of the spleen ____ digest worn-out red blood cells and imperfect platelets
Mucus, tears, and saliva contain an enzyme called _____, which destroys bacteria
The two most important phagocytes are _____ and macrophages
The process whereby inflamed cells summon neutrophils is ______
Besides immunity, what other function does the lymphatic system serve?
A) Fluid balance
B) Electrolyte balance
C) Prevents cancer cells from spreading
D) Regulation of body temperature
Which of the following is associated with specific immunity?
Which of the following aids in the movement of lymphatic fluid?
A) Pulsations within nearby veins and capillaries
B) Beating of cilia within lymphatic vessels
C) Contractions of skeletal muscles
D) The beating of the heart
The right lymphatic duct drains lymph for the upper right quadrant of the body into the right _____ vein
Lymphatic nodules residing in the small intestines are called:
The cluster of lymph nodes in the groin area are called _____ lymph nodes
Lymph fluid eventually returns to the ______
right and left subclavian veins
The single tonsil that sits on the wall of the pharynx, just behind the nasal cavity, is the _____ tonsil
Which of the following is one of the actions of complement?
A) Complement coats cells, making them unattractive to pathogens.
B) Complement triggers the production of enzymes in cells that prevent a bacterium from replicating.
C) Complement alleviates inflammation.
D) Complement triggers a cascade of chemical reactions that result with the destruction of a bacterium.
The most abundant immunoglobulin is
Where is the spleen located?
A) The right lower quadrant of the abdomen
B) The upper left quadrant of the abdomen
C) Behind the stomach
D) The upper right quadrant of the abdomen
A key difference between cellular and humoral immunity is that
A) Cellular immunity focuses on pathogens on the body's surface, whereas humoral immunity focuses on pathogens in the body's interior.
B) cellular immunity destroys pathogens inside the cell, whereas humoral immunity destroys pathogens outside the cell.
C) Cellular immunity is a nonspecific immunity, whereas humoral immunity is a specific immunity.
D) cellular immunity destroys pathogens outside the cell, whereas humoral immunity destroys pathogens inside the cell.
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