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Chapters 1-4

assistive technology

item, equipment, product that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capacities of children with disabilities (ex. visual aids, communication devices)

at risk

term used for children who are not currently identified as disabled but are considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability


condition characterized by functional limitations that impede typical development as the result of a physical or sensory impairment or difficulty in learning or social development

exceptional children

children whose performance deviates from the norm, either below or above, to the extent that special education is needed


problems a person with disabilities or impairment encounters in interacting with the environment


loss or reduced function of a particular body part or organ (ex. missing limb)


percentage of people who at some time in their lives, will be identified as having a specific condition

IEP (Individualized Education Plan)

Individualized Education Plan - written doc required by the IDEA for every child with a disability which includes: statements of present performance, annual goals, short-term instructional objectives, specific educational services needed, extent of participation in gen ed, eval of procedures and relevant dates

IFSP (Individualized Family Services Plan)

- a requirement of IDEA for the coordination of of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities from birth to age 3

manifestation determination

review of the relationship between a student's misconduct and his disability conducted by the IEP team that is required by the IDEA when seeking to discipline a student with disabilities in a manner that would result in a change of placement for 10 or more days.


number of people who have a certain condition at any given time

primary prevention

intervention designed to eliminate or counteract risk factors so that a disability is never acquired

related services

developmental, corrective, and other supportive services required for a child with disabilities to benefit from SPED (ex. transportation services, physical therapy, speech pathology)

repeated reading

technique for increasing reading fluency in which a student orally reads the same passage 3-5 times during each session

SAFMEDS (Say All Fast a Minute Each Day Shuffled)

Flashcard technique where student answers as many items in the deck as he can during 1 minute practice trials

secondary prevention

intervention directed at reducing or eliminating the effects of existing risk factors aimed at those exposed to or displaying specific risk factors

tertiary prevention

intervention designed to minimize the impact of a specific condition or disability aimed at individuals with a disability

time trials

fluency-building activity in which students correctly perform a particular skill as many times as they can in a brief period (ex. math problems)

continuum of alternative placements

a range of placement and instructional options for children with disabilities (pyramid)


if the disability is no longer present or the child's education is no longer adversely affected by the disability

IEP team

group that creates IEP that consists of: parents, 1 reg ed teacher, 1 sped teacher, local educ agency representative, eval interpreter, person knowledgeable about gen curriculum


educating students with disabilities in the gen ed classrooms

LRE (least restrictive environment)

the educational setting that most closely resembles a regular school program and also meets the student's educational needs

MFE (multifactored eval)

assessment and eval of a child with a variety of test instruments and observation procedures

prereferral intervention

individualized intervention for a student experiencing academic or beh difficulties in the gen ed classroom before referring the student for formal testing and eval for SPED eligibility

randomized experimental group design

A research design in which participants are randomly assigned to to the experimental group or to the control group

RTI (responsiveness to intervention

a systematic prereferral and early intervention process that consists of universal screening and several tiers of increasingly intensive trials of research-based interventions before assessment for SPED eligibility.

cultural interpreter

individual who helps school personnel and family from a diverse culture communicate effectively

cultural reciprocity

a two-way process btween professionals and families of info sharing, understanding, and respecting how their differing values and belief systems may influence perspectives, wishes, and decisions.

respite care

temporary care of an individual with disabilities by nonfamily members

acquisition stage of learning

initial phase of learning when the student is learning how to perform a new skill or use new knowledge

active student response (ASR)

a frequency-based measure of a student's active participation during instruction

adaptive behavior

conceptual, social, and practical skills that people have learned in order to function in their everyday lives


the insertion of a hollow needle thru the abdomen into the uterus to determine abnormalities

choral responding

each student responds orally in unison to a question, problem, or item presented by teacher

chorionic villi sampling

procedure for prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities that can be conducted during the first 8 to 10 weeks of pregnancy

down syndrome

a chromosomal anomaly that often causes moderate-to-severe mental retardation along with certain physical characteristics such as a large tongue heart problems poor muscle tone and a broad flat bridge of the nost

fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

a condition sometimes found in the infants of alcoholic mothers which can involve low birth weight developmental delay and cardiac, limb and other physical deformities

fragile X syndrome

a chromosomal abnormality associated with mild to severe mental retardation. Thought to be the most common known cause of inherited mental retardation


extent to which previously learned knowledge or skill either occurs under conditions different from those under which it was originally learned

genetic counseling

a discussion btween a specially trained medical counselor and persons who are considering having a baby about the chances of having a baby with a disability based on the prospective parents' genetic backgrounds

intellectual disabilities

disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills - originates before age 18


extent to which a learner continues to exhibit a previously learned behavior after a portion or all of the instructional intervention has been terminated

mediated scaffolding

a variety of instructional procedures that entails providing the learner with response prompts, cues, and other contrived supports and then gradually withdrawing those supports so the student can respond independently to naturally occurring stimuli

mental retardation

a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual social and practical adaptive skills - originates b4 age 18

normal curve

bell curve


a belief that individuals with disabilities should to the maximum extent possible be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability.

norm-referenced test

a test constructed so that a person's score can be compared to others of same age or grade level


occurring at or immediately after birth

phenylketonuria (PKU)

an inherited metabolic disease that can cause severe mental retardation; effects can be prevented with diet

positive reinforcement

presentation of a stimulus or event immediately after a response has been emitted which has the primary effect of increasing the occurrence of similar responses in the future


occurring after birth

practice stage of learning

after a student has learned how to perform a new skill she should work to develop fluency with the target skill


occurring before birth

response cards

cards, signs, or items that are simultaneously held up by all students to display their response to a question or problem presented by the teacher


german measles - if caught during 1st trimester can cause visual/hearing impairments, mental retardation, and/or other congenital impairments


combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal-directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior

standard deviation

average amount of variability among a set of scores

task analysis

breaking a complex skill or chain of behaviors into smaller, teachable units

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