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Geology 1301 Exam 4 Review
Terms in this set (40)
Please distinguish between weather and climate.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, whereas climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions, based on observations over many decades.
Which gas is not a primary component of clean, dry air?
Which of the following gases is the greatest absorber of energy emitted by Earth?
water vapor (H2O)
Weather is ultimately driven by ________.
energy input from the Sun
If the inclination of Earth's axis were increased, which of the following would be a result?
The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn would be closer to the poles, expanding the region between them where the Sun's rays strike Earth vertically between solstices.
Why do seasons occur?
Seasons occur because of the inclination of Earth's axis.
Distinguish between heat and temperature.
Heat generally refers to the quantity of thermal energy present, whereas temperature refers to the intensity (i.e., degree of hotness).
Energy from the Sun reaches Earth through ________.
The fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface is ________.
The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere due to certain gases absorbing heat is called _____________.
the greenhouse effect
Which of the following are possible explanations for recent global temperature changes?
Increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as a result of the use of fossil fuels and changes in the Sun's energy output.
How can cloud cover influence the maximum temperature on an overcast day? How is the nighttime minimum temperature influenced by clouds?
Cloud cover during the daytime results in cooler days, while cloud cover during the nighttime results in warmer nights.
Which of the following exists in all three states of matter at Earth's surface?
Energy that is stored or released during a change of state of water is called ___________heat.
Mixing ratio, relative humidity, and dew-point temperature are all ways of measuring the amount of ________ in the air.
The ________ is the temperature to which a parcel of air would need to be cooled in order to reach saturation.
A 1-kilogram parcel of air is at 25°C and contains 14 grams of water vapor. What is the relative humidity?
The cooling or warming of air that occurs because air is allowed to expand or is compressed, not because it is added or subtracted is called ________.
adiabatic temperature changes
What condition is required for cloud formation in the atmosphere?
A rising parcel of air reaches its dew-point temperature.
Air that does not resist vertical displacement is called ________.
What role do condensation nuclei play in the formation of clouds?
Condensation nuclei serve as surfaces for water-vapor condensation high above the ground.
Glaze is described as ______________.
a thin coating of ice on objects consisting of ice feathers that point into the wind
Describe sleet and freezing rain.
Sleet consists of clear to translucent ice pellets, whereas freezing rain falls as supercooled raindrops that freeze on contact with surfaces.
What is air pressure?
the pressure exerted by the weight of the air above
Because unequal heating of Earth's surface generates these pressure differences, ________ is/are the ultimate energy source for most wind.
What force creates wind?
Why do surface winds generally cross the isobars whereas geostrophic winds blow nearly parallel to the isobars?
Surface winds are directed across isobars due to friction with Earth's surface, whereas geostrophic winds are too high to be affected by this friction.
Due to the Coriolis and pressure-gradient forces, winds in a low-pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere blow in which direction?
inward and counterclockwise
Looking at a weather map of North America, you notice that the isobars in an approaching pressure system are very closely spaced and show a decrease in pressure toward the center. What type of weather would you anticipate over the next 24 to 48 hours?
rainy and windy
High air pressure systems are usually associated with ________.
What general weather conditions are to be expected when the pressure tendency is rising? When the pressure tendency is fallin
When the pressure tendency is rising, one can generally expect fair weather; when the pressure tendency is falling, one can generally expect stormy weather.
________ occur(s) with seasonal reversal of wind direction, often associated with large continents and producing a rainy summer season.
What is a local wind?
a small-scale wind produced by a locally generated pressure gradient
An anemometer measures ________.
From what direction does a northeast wind blow? Toward what direction does a south wind blow?
A northeast wind blows from the northeast, and a south wind blows toward the north.
Which parameter best defines the primary difference between weather and climate?
The line separating the dark half of Earth from the lighted half is called ________.
the circle of illumination
After mowing the lawn on a hot, hazy, humid day, you get a large glass from the kitchen and fill it with ice and water. Immediately, drops of liquid water form on the outside of the glass. Which change in the state of water are you observing on your glass?
A fire extinguisher containing compressed CO2 is used to put out a fire. In spite of being close to the flames, the firefighter notices a white layer of "frost" forming on the exterior of the fire extinguisher can. What's going on?
The gas in the extinguisher is expanding when released, cooling adiabatically.
Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called ________.
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